Scabies itch, also known as the scabby mite, is a frequent companion of humans and other mammals. This is a typical parasite that lives in the thickness of the host’s skin, breeds there and feeds on it. The activity of a tick in human skin causes a well-known disease – scabies.
In this material we will talk about what a man itch mite has in humans, how the life cycle of a parasite is arranged and what is the treatment of the disease.
The content of the article:
What a scabby mite looks like
In the photo of a scabies mite taken with an electron microscope, all the details of the body of this parasite are clearly visible. According to its structure, Sarcoptes Scabiei (the scientific name for scabies mites) belongs to arachnids, or arachnids.
A scabies mite has a retracted oval body with four pairs of legs.
The two front pairs of legs have suckers with which the tick moves along the surface of the skin. There are brushes on the hind legs – they play the role of a kind of balance stabilizer. Males have suckers also on the fourth pair of legs.
In addition, well-developed claws can be found on the limbs of a tick – with them it rakes the skin of a person in order to gnaw through it. Many bristles and spines that grow all over the body, allow the tick to be well fixed inside the subcutaneous tunnel.
In itch itch developed oral apparatus. He easily gnaws epithelial tissue (that is, the skin), which he feeds on.
Males of scabies mite are one and a half to two times smaller than females, and they bring little concern to a man. The skin moves they do not dig, but move on the already prepared, and live not for long.
The size of the females sometimes reach 0.5 mm, and usually –
An important step for scientists was the study of the life cycle of scabies mites. Understanding the laws of how this parasite exists, doctors learned how to control the infection with a scabies tick and how to fight it properly.
How scabby itch behaves in humans
The danger in terms of infection is only fertilized mature females and larvae – because they dig the passages and damage human skin. We will tell about them in this section.
The female must dig for human skin, because the subcutaneous tunnel is a kind of “cradle” of her offspring day. The female spends most of her life in the skin. The whole cycle of tick life can be divided into reproductive and metamorphic periods.
Photo: scabies mite on the body
Reproductive period – the time of posterity
The fertilized female begins to dig in the skin of the host within half an hour after infection. Therefore, a person who has contracted such an individual may not have an incubation period for scabies. But if the infection has occurred by the larvae, then the incubation period extends until the larvae mature, for about 2 weeks.
Having penetrated into the skin, the female gnaws a stroke there, moving at a speed of 2 millimeters per day. During the advance of the scabies mite, the person feels symptoms such as itching or burning. The cause of itching is also an allergy to the products of mite activity – toxins and feces. Therefore, with scabies, the patient may also have a rash.
In the course of her life, the female travels a path of 4–7 cm. However, such long strokes are not encountered in practice, because the back of the stroke eventually peels off. Thus, the visible moves are usually 5-6 millimeters long.
Photo: Scabies Tick Bites
All females are characterized by an almost synchronous daily rhythm. During the day, they sit still, digesting food, and by night they begin to actively live.
At the same time, in the first half of the night, they tear out 1 or 2 short branches from the main turn, where they lay 1 egg each. And in the roof of the clutch, the female prepares a path upward for future larvae.
The second half of the night, the female gnaws the foundation on the move further and eats actively, and the next day everything repeats.
Knowledge of the daily rhythm of mange mite in humans has changed the approach to the treatment and prevention of scabies: it explains why the symptoms of the disease increase in the evening and why the treatment prescribed for the night helps better.
Metamorphic period – the time of maturing of the tick
After 3 days, the larva is born from the egg. On the course done by the mother, she is selected on the surface of the skin. There the larva either penetrates the hair follicle or simply hides under the scales of the epidermis. There, within 10-14 days, it first turns into a nymph – a small copy of an adult individual that does not have a reproductive apparatus, and then – into an adult insect. This process of transformation among biologists is called “moult.
Adult mites are selected on the surface of the skin where mating occurs. After the mating season, the males die, and the females begin to look for a place to implant. At the same time they can move at a speed of up to 2 centimeters per minute.
Female subcutaneous tick digs move
Favorite habitats of scabies itch – skin areas with a thick horny layer of the epidermis. These are:
- interdigital spaces and fingers
The thick horny layer of skin in these places allows the larvae to mature before the course is exfoliated along with dead skin. Having found a suitable skin area, the female digs her turn and the cycle continues.
The habitats of scabies itch are not limited to these areas. Often, the female takes root in the skin of the abdomen, groin, buttocks. Some researchers explain this by the occasional mechanical pressing of a tick on the skin – for example, tight clothing or in a sitting position. In advanced cases, itching affects other parts of the body.
Tick death conditions
Far from all the larvae live to adulthood, otherwise hundreds of thousands of ticks would live in a person, and it would be very difficult to cope with their spread.
Using simple mathematics, it is possible to calculate that within 2 months of life one adult female will produce up to 10,000 descendants, who could dig about 700 moves.
Fortunately, in practice it has been established that the number of moves, 2 months after infection, is on average only 25-30. This happens because ticks at all stages of their development are killed in a multitude – that is, even 5% of eggs laid do not reach the stage of an adult.
But adult mites are quite resistant to environmental influences. Outside the human body – at a relative humidity above 60% and room temperature – the tick retains its viability up to a week, and under particularly favorable conditions and to two.
That is why a person can not always understand exactly where he could get infected. Alas, this can happen anywhere and at any time, considering how much an adult itch mite lives in the external environment – for example, on clothing.
Itch is very sensitive to drying – with a lack of moisture, he lives no more than a day. But even more tick is afraid of rising temperatures. At a temperature from 60 ° C he dies within an hour, and when boiling – instantly.
Man with tick infestation: treatment and prevention
The itch mite, like the symptoms it causes in humans, is well studied today. This allowed the development of effective measures to combat scabies itch. These measures are based on knowledge of the biological characteristics of the mite.
While the larva is in the egg, it is resistant to most drugs. Knowing how much she is there, the doctors came up with an effective “1-4” treatment regimen. According to this scheme, the medicine is applied on the first and fourth day of treatment – so that the tick larvae have time to hatch and get hit. Classic preparations for the treatment of scabies – benzyl benzoate, sulfuric ointment, permethrin, Wilkinson ointment and others.
Today, modern drugs are found in pharmacies that do not require adherence to this scheme – for example, the drug Spregal. It is made in the form of an aerosol and, according to the manufacturer, well destroys the mite, regardless of the scheme.
A number of clinical trials of the drug in Russia showed efficacy of over 80% in a single application. Despite this, many experts still recommend using the proven scheme 1-4.
In addition, it is fully proven that the drug should be applied to the whole body, and not just to the affected areas. Another important aspect of treatment is to apply the drug in the evening, so that the peak of its action falls on the period of maximum activity of the tick.
Has a huge role prophylaxis re-infection of the most ill and family members. Prevention measures are simple – this boiling and ironing linen and clothes of the patient, which allows you to destroy the parasite.
In addition, there are interesting solutions that are sold in the pharmacy, for example, A-PAR aerosol, which is sprayed with clothes and bed linen.
Bites of a scabies tick deliver a lot of trouble to a sick person, and the parasite itself is easily transmitted by contact. Of course, many people are interested in how to get rid of scabies mites at home, but a visit to the doctor if you suspect scabies is a better step, because illiterate treatment can lead to severe forms of the disease, as well as to allergic dermatitis and other skin diseases.