The problem of high blood pressure can occur at any age, so it is recommended to check blood pressure indicators, even in children. Increasingly, with mandatory medical examinations, doctors find symptoms of hypertension in young men and women. If such a condition is diagnosed, parents often do not understand what the high pressure in a teenager is talking about. It is not always dangerous. However, it should be understood, under what signs it is necessary to worry about the child being examined by a doctor. It is also useful for parents to know how to normalize pressure at a transitional age.
High pressure in a teenager
Arterial hypertension can be primary and secondary. The first can develop if there is a predisposition in the family, it occurs under the influence of a teenager’s lifestyle. The second reason is the pathology that has arisen in the body.
Arterial hypertension in children and adolescents in most cases is primary.
The basis for the diagnosis of hypertension in young people should be confirmed by measurements taken more than once. It should be borne in mind that if you measure blood pressure immediately after physical exertion, food intake, recent stress, the indicators will increase. If the examination revealed an increase in pressure, it is necessary to repeat the measurement after a while. It is important that the child at this moment was calm.
If the examination was conducted by a doctor, for example, a school doctor, he may recommend to the parents of a particular specialist. In the case when adults themselves, with the help of a home tonometer, suspected high pressure in a teenager, they need to go to the hospital for a deeper diagnosis.
Adults can panic by finding a blood pressure in the child that exceeds the well-known rate of 120/80. In fact, the pressure of an adult can fluctuate during the day in the following frames: systolic 110–140 mm Hg. Art. (upper) and diastolic 60–90 mmHg. Art. (bottom).
- at 12–13 years, the level of upper BP should not exceed 125 mm Hg. Art.
- in 14-15 years, it can rise to 130 mm Hg. Art.
- at 16 years, a systolic blood pressure of 125–135 mmHg is considered acceptable. Art. and diastolic – 80–85 mm Hg. Art.
- at the age of 17, it is not said that blood pressure has risen when the upper stays within 140 and the lower 90 mm Hg. Art.
Normal for adolescents jumps of blood pressure can appear in a girl from the age of 12, and in a boy from 14 years This is due to the onset of puberty and, if there are no other symptoms, it does not threaten health. At the age of 15-17 years, it is recommended to check blood pressure in adolescents annually.
Causes of hypertension in adolescents
It is worth paying attention to what causes of high pressure, consistently beyond the norm, called doctors. Primary hypertension occurs in such conditions:
- typical heredity;
- against the background of high blood cholesterol;
- with excess weight;
- after taking some drugs (this also applies to oral contraceptives);
- due to inactive lifestyle;
- when smoking, alcohol abuse.
In 95% of cases, it is for these reasons that hypertension occurs in children and adolescents. But sometimes the diagnosis can detect diseases that led to the formation of hypertensive syndrome. These diseases include:
- kidney disease;
- Congenital heart defect;
- head injuries that caused an increase in intracranial pressure;
- drug addiction;
Since 2002, overweight and increased pressure in adolescents associated with obesity are increasingly diagnosed every year.
The doctor may suspect the child is not just jumps associated with an excess of emotions or transitional age, but a serious disease by the presence of characteristic complaints.
The main symptom of hypertension is a systematic increase in pressure in adolescents. Children often complain about such manifestations:
- on the general deterioration of health;
- frequent headaches;
- for sleep problems:
- excessive sweating;
- for nausea;
- pain in the heart;
- on vertigo.
Parents themselves may note that the child has become very nervous, irritable
What to do
Blood pressure disorders are a common problem among children and adolescents. In addition to hypertension, there are cases when, on the contrary, it is necessary to increase the pressure.
A mistake by parents in the event of such a problem can be a belief that they themselves know how to increase or decrease pressure, but improper treatment can only aggravate the situation and lead to the development of cardiovascular pathologies in the patient.
Only the doctor, after examining the patient and receiving the results of the diagnosis, decides what to do in a particular situation. For adolescents, this most often means normalization of blood pressure in accordance with age, sex, and physical parameters.
Basically, pressure reduction is carried out by methods of non-drug therapy aimed at changing the lifestyle of a teenager:
- getting rid of overweight;
- increased physical activity;
- adjustment of diet, restrictions on some foods in the diet.
Determining how to reduce blood pressure, the doctor may advise not too heavy, but active loads: long walks on foot, swimming, cycling, jogging for more than 30 minutes.
One of the main measures that reduce pressure in adolescents is the elimination of negative emotional factors. It is important to find out what could cause the child’s mental instability leading to hypertension: problems with studies, conflicts with peers or in the family. This may require the help of a psychologist or psychotherapist. To the effect of therapy appeared more likely to visit a specialist preferably the whole family.
The diet for hypertensive patients is based on the following rules:
- use per day not more than 7 g of salt;
- minimize the amount of simple carbohydrates;
- prefer vegetable fats (at least one third of the diet of vegetable fats);
- forget about coffee and strong tea;
- eliminate alcohol;
- do not eat fatty meat and fish;
- do not eat canned food, sharp and smoked;
- do not add spices;
- use vitamins;
- eat on a fractional basis (4–5 times a day).
Add to the menu of a teenager suffering from hypertension, you need products containing magnesium and potassium: dried fruits, nuts, zucchini, bananas, peaches, cauliflower, oatmeal, cottage cheese, hard cheese.
Pressure pills can be prescribed in case there is no effect from non-drug therapy.
With the development of secondary hypertension medications are prescribed necessarily. In this case, treatment of the underlying disease is also prescribed. It is imperative that you take medication if the target organs are affected: the retina (degenerative changes of a non-inflammatory nature), the heart (left ventricular hypertrophy).
If a teenager periodically increases blood pressure, it can be a manifestation of transitional age. But very often, problems such as overweight, emotional overload, physical inactivity can lead to the fact that the child will be diagnosed with hypertension. With timely treatment to the doctor, this problem can be solved with non-drug therapy.
Do not self-medicate. In rare cases, serious pathologies lead to an increase in blood pressure, which can be detected only during a medical examination.