Avitaminosis. The condition of the body caused by a prolonged lack of vitamins in the diet. May be accompanied by such deviations in health, such as bling, rickets, beriberi and other diseases.
Amino acids. The building blocks of which proteins are made. The human body needs 20 different amino acids to function properly. Some of the amino acids are produced in the body. Others, called essential amino acids, must be obtained from food products.
Antivitamins. Substances that prevent the absorption of vitamins by the living cell due to the destruction of vitamins, the binding of vitamins to inactive forms, the substitution of vitamins by other compounds that are similar in chemical structure, but have opposite biological effects.
Antioxidants. These are substances such as vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene, which protect the body from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.
Biologically active substance. A substance produced by the body or received by it from the outside, and has a suppressive or stimulating effect on the processes occurring in the body. To biologically active substances, hormones, biolines, enzymes, phytohormones, inhibitors, etc.
Biotin. Water-soluble vitamin involved in carbon dioxide transfer reactions. Synthesized by intestinal microflora. Biotin deficiency is mainly associated with skin lesions.
Prenatal vitamins. Specially designed multivitamins, which provide adequate quantities of essential micronutrients during pregnancy. Maternity vitamins usually contain more folic acid, iron and calcium than standard supplements for adults.
Vitamins. Elements that play a vital role in growth function, energy and nerves. There are two types of vitamins that are used by the body to maintain health: fat-soluble and water-soluble.
Water soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins such as B-6, C and folic acid are easily absorbed by the body. After using these vitamins, our body removes them with urine. Since these vitamins are not stored in the body, the risk of their toxicity is much lower than in the case of fat-soluble vitamins, but also the risk of their deficiency is high.
Fat-soluble vitamins. The peculiarity of fat-soluble vitamins, such as A, D, E, K, is that they are absorbed by the body only in the presence of fat. In addition, they are less destroyed during the heat treatment of products. Such vitamins are better absorbed when taken during or immediately after a meal. Our body saves an excess of fat-soluble vitamins in the liver and adipose tissue, and then uses them as needed. Getting more fat-soluble vitamins than you need can be toxic and cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, pain in the liver and heart.
Daily intake of vitamins. On leaflets and labels of food and beverages, this figure shows the percentage of a substance per serving of food or drink, or medicine.
Trace elements These are vitamins and minerals that our body needs in small quantities. Trace elements are vital in the processing of processing macro fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Examples are chromium, zinc and selenium.
Minerals Nutrients that are found in the soil or water and are absorbed by plants and animals in the process of feeding. Minerals are the main component of bones and teeth, and also help in cell creation and support of nerve impulses. Examples include calcium and magnesium.
Multivitamins. Tablets, drinks, or other substances containing more than one vitamin.
Enrichment. In order to increase the nutritional and nutritional value of the drink, vitamins, minerals and other substances are added to it. Dairy products, enriched with vitamins A and D, are often on sale.
Oxidation. A chemical reaction in which oxygen combines with substances, changing or destroying them. Oxidation can damage cell membranes and alter cell regulatory systems, but this process is also part of the normal functioning of the immune system.
Organic matter. Carbon containing chemical compounds. For example: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, hormones, enzymes, vitamins, etc.
Free radicals Atoms or molecules that have at least one unpaired electron, which makes them unstable and reactive. When free radicals react with certain chemicals in the body, they can affect the ability of cells to function properly. Free radicals can stabilize antioxidants.
Shock dose. Supplements that provide more than 100% of the daily requirement of essential vitamins in the body and minerals.
Folic acid. Water-soluble vitamin involved in the synthesis of nitrogenous compounds and hematopoiesis.
Photographic substances. Substances derived from plants and used in food additives, personal care products or medicines.
Phytochemicals. Compounds found in fruits, vegetables and other plants, and can be used for health purposes. Phytochemicals (sometimes called phytonutrients) include beta-carotene, lycopene, and resveratrol.