Phlebitis – inflammation of the venous wall of an acute or chronic nature. It develops as a result of exposure to various factors, but, more often, varicose veins of the lower extremities become the cause. In the process of changes in the venous wall, as a result of inflammation, blood clots are formed, which further leads to the development of thrombophlebitis.
The main factors in the development of phlebitis are varicose veins, which provokes the appearance of phlebitis of the lower extremities. Phlebitis can also be provoked by previous infectious diseases, chemical burns of veins, abscesses, all of which contribute to the development of phlebitis on the hands and feet.
The reasons can also be: various injuries, limb immobility for a long time, excess body weight, prolonged stress, some insect bites, reaction to injections, reaction to the installation of intravenous catheters, pregnancy.
In the case of acute superficial phlebitis, such manifestations are characteristic: the vein becomes tense and painful, the skin over the affected vein becomes denser and reddens. Local hyperthermia is noted. Possible increase in body temperature, there is a general weakness. Also characterized by the appearance of red stripes along the location of the inflamed veins.
In the case of chronic phlebitis, the clinical picture is smoothed, there is a recurrent course of the disease with periodic periods of exacerbation.
In the case of acute phlebitis of the deep veins, there is a general hyperthermia, a manifestation of puffiness and pain in the inflammatory process. The skin of the affected limb becomes milky white. Sealing and redness of the skin is not observed. In the overwhelming majority of cases, acute phlebitis of deep veins is complicated by the formation of blood clots and becomes acute thrombophlebitis.
When cerebral phlebitis, characteristic are headache, increased blood pressure, neurological symptoms.
In the case of phlebitis of the penis, characterized by sharp pain, swelling, the penis becomes bluish color.
When pylephlebitis is characterized by severe purulent intoxication. The patient’s condition worsens, possible weakness, vomiting, headache, cutting pains in the right hypochondrium, jaundice, fever. There is a danger of death.
Diagnosis and diagnosis is carried out by a phlebologist. If necessary, conduct ultrasound diagnostics and duplex scanning.
Phlebitis are distinguished by localization:
1. Periflebitis. The outer sheath of the vein is mainly affected. This type of phlebitis develops, mainly during the inflammatory process in the tissues surrounding the vein walls.
2. Endoflebit. Most often affects the inner lining of the veins. It develops as a result of injury or damage to the inner lining of the vein. The cause may be catheterization of the vein or as a consequence of the drip of various drugs.
3. Panflebit. All vein membranes are affected.
There are phlebitis on etiology:
1. Allergic phlebitis. It occurs as a result of an allergic reaction. Perhaps a chronic course of the disease.
2. Pain phlebitis. It usually occurs after childbirth, often affects the lower limbs. The disease has an acute course and a pronounced pain syndrome.
3. Migrating phlebitis. Young men are most affected. The disease is accompanied by damage to the arteries and has a relapsing course.
4. Cerebral phlebitis. It has an infectious nature, affects the brain vessels.
5. Pylephlebitis. Manifested as a complication of inflammatory processes in the abdominal cavity.
If you suspect this disease, you must contact a specialized specialist – phlebologist.
Phlebitis treatment is carried out in a comprehensive and conservative manner. In some cases, the treatment of phlebitis of the superficial veins, is carried out by an out-patient phlebologist. With other types of phlebitis, most often, hospitalization of the patient is indicated.
Drug treatment is carried out with drugs that improve the nutrition of the walls of the veins and reduce blood viscosity (troxevasin, etc.), as well as relaxes the smooth muscles of blood vessels (troxerutin). The limb affected by phlebitis must be kept on high ground and the patient should be given maximum rest. It is necessary to carry out anti-inflammatory treatment of a general and local nature, physiotherapeutic procedures are shown. After stopping the acute process of the disease or exacerbation of the chronic, it is recommended to use, as a supporting method, a compression knit or special elastic bandages.
Most often, thrombophlebitis becomes the main complication of phlebitis. Sharply increases the risk of thrombosis of the vein. In the acute stage, deep vein thrombophlebitis can lead to pulmonary thromboembolism in the distant future can cause chronic venous insufficiency. In the case of phlebitis there is a possibility of the development of infectious complications – abscesses, phlegmon.
The basis of preventive actions aimed at preventing phlebitis is its localization. Patients with varicose veins should be especially attentive, all recommendations of the doctor should be followed and timely examinations should be carried out. When conducting intravenous infusions and injections, it is necessary to strictly adhere to established rules for conducting such procedures. The timely treatment of inflammatory processes, pustular formations and minor injuries is necessary.