Urinalysis – one of the most common medical laboratory services.
The trace element composition of urine may depend on the state of the body, the presence of disease, and metabolism.
To assess the performance of the kidneys and the urogenital system, as a rule, a general urinalysis is appointed.
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In order for the test results to be as reliable as possible, it is necessary to properly prepare for their delivery.
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Even in ancient times, doctors were able to determine the state of the human body according to its urine. And even if the conclusions were not always true, but thousands of years ago people knew that urine can give a lot of information about health. Undoubtedly, the capabilities of modern laboratories allow a general analysis of urine to be much more accurate. This diagnostic method is still indispensable.
The reasons for the appointment of a general urine test
Urine is one of the main products of human life. Its main component, as it is easy to guess, is water, which makes up 92–99% of the total urine volume. But along with excess water, decomposition products, toxins and slags, hormones and some other substances are removed from the body. That is why urine analysis is so informative. General urine analysis refers to the main diagnostic studies and is prescribed for suspected a variety of diseases and pathologies, first of all for kidney and urinary system diseases, as well as for preventive examinations and to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment.
General urine analysis involves both the determination of the physical properties of this fluid and the study of its chemical characteristics. With this study, you can diagnose various diseases of the kidneys, liver, bladder, identify problems with the prostate gland, tumors, pyelonephritis, as well as a number of pathological conditions in the early stages, when clinical manifestations are still absent.
How to pass a general urine test
Preparation for the analysis
The composition of urine is influenced by many factors – our food and drink, stress, exercise, taking medications and dietary supplements. In order for the survey results not to be distorted by random factors, you should prepare for a general urine test.
- The day before the biomaterial is collected, it is necessary to discard products that can change the color of urine (for example, brightly colored fruits, vegetables and dishes made from them, smoked meat, sweets and pickles).
- You should also not drink alcohol, take vitamins, dietary supplements, diuretics (including coffee).
- If you are taking any medications, tell the doctor who referred you for analysis.
- Try to eliminate serious physical exertion, bath and sauna.
- Menstruation, an infectious disease with an increase in temperature or a significant increase in blood pressure is a good reason to postpone testing, the results will still be distorted.
- It is not recommended to take a urine test within 5-7 days after cystoscopy.
Samples should not be contaminated with foreign matter. Therefore it is necessary to follow all the rules for collecting material.
- For general urine analysis, morning urine is used, which is collected overnight in the bladder.
- Before taking the material should take a shower – failure to comply with this rule may entail the identification of an increased number of red blood cells and white blood cells in the urine.
- Ware for collecting samples should be sterile, without traces of cleaners and disinfectants. Nowadays, disposable containers are mainly used for these purposes.
- To prevent bacteria from external genitalia from getting into the sample, you need to release a small amount of urine into the toilet, and then, without stopping urination, substitute the container and collect 100–150 ml. The container should not touch the skin.
- Urine collected for general analysis can be stored no more than 1.5–2 hours, and always in a cool place, at a temperature of 5-18? С. Urine stored at room temperature is unsuitable for analysis.
- For urine collection in newborns, sterile urine bags are used, which can be purchased at the pharmacy. The rest of the rules for children are the same as for adults. Urine is collected in the morning, before collecting the baby’s material, it is necessary to thoroughly wash and wipe it with a clean, dry towel. If there is no urine bag, you can use a new plastic bag – they are cut on the sides and tied in the manner of a loincloth so that the bag is in the crotch area. Collected urine is poured into a sterile container.
Urinalysis: norm and interpretation of results
Volume. The normal volume of urine is 100–300 ml, it is the same for adults of both sexes. If the urine volume is below normal, this may be a sign of dehydration or acute renal failure. Too much urine – cause to suspect pyelonephritis or diabetes mellitus.
Colour. In normal color urine – straw yellow. Color change is an important indicator. An orange-red hue speaks of bilirubinemia, typical of such diseases as hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholestasis. Reddish – a sign of pyelonephritis, stone discharge, tuberculosis, or even kidney cancer. When pyelonephritis urine becomes almost colorless, pale yellow. Black is a sign of alkaptonuria, and grayish-white indicates the presence of purulent inflammatory reactions in the body. When you take certain medications and vitamins, the urine becomes bright yellow.
Smell. Changing the smell of urine means the presence of certain diseases – for example, in inflammatory processes in the urogenital system, a characteristic ammonia smell appears, and in diabetes mellitus, urine has a slight smell of acetone.
Frothiness. Normally, with shaking, the foam is practically absent. A large amount of resistant foam with color is characteristic of jaundice and an increased urine protein content. Foam can also talk about severe stress, a concussion of the brain, malfunctions of the cerebral circulation, advanced diabetes, heart failure and some metabolic disorders.
Transparency. Under normal conditions, urine should be clear. Clouding can be caused by salts, mucus, red blood cells, bacteria, pus. Flakes and filaments may indicate pyelonephritis or lower urinary tract infection.
physical and chemical indicators
Density. Normally, this indicator varies between 1000-1025 units. Increased density indicates dehydration, reduced – problems with the kidneys.
Acidity. Acid-base balance normally should be in the range of 5 to 7.5 on the pH scale.
Protein. Normally, there is no protein in the urine or it is contained in very insignificant quantities – up to 0, 033 g / l. The presence of protein and urine is a sign of kidney disease. Sugar in the urine of a healthy person is also absent. If its content exceeds 0.9 mmol / l, it may indicate the development of diabetes.
Bilirubin in the urine of a healthy person is absent, its presence indicates liver disease.
Ketone bodies in the urine indicate diabetes.
Blood corpuscles (red blood cells, white blood cells). Urinalysis in a healthy person should show no more than 2 red blood cells in the field of view of the microscope, and leukocytes should show no more than 3 in men and 5 in women. An increased red blood cell count is characteristic of many diseases: pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, glomerulonephritis, urinary tract infections, systemic lupus erythematosus or poisoning (especially poisonous fungi, snake venom, benzene derivatives and aniline). An elevated white blood cell count indicates possible pathologies of the kidneys or urinary tract: glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis.
Hyaline Cylinders. Urinalysis in healthy adults does not detect the presence of hyaline cylinders in the sediment. Their presence is a sign of renal pathology, heart failure, hyperthermic conditions. Sometimes hyaline cylinders appear on the background of heavy physical exertion, high blood pressure and diuretic drugs.
Granular cylinders in the urine of a healthy person are absent. Their presence may indicate glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, may also indicate the presence in the body of viral infections, fever or lead poisoning.
Wax cylinders. These formations are normal in the urine analysis as well, their presence makes it possible to suspect amyloidosis, chronic renal failure or nephrotic syndrome.
Bacteria. Healthy urine is sterile, the presence of bacteria is a clear sign of urinary tract infection, for example, urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, etc.
Mushrooms Normally, there is no fungus in the urine. If it is found, it means a fungal infection of the urinary tract or genital organs. Often, the fungus is fixed in people with immunodeficiency states and those who have taken antibiotics for a long time.
Soleil in healthy urine almost none. Their presence indicates dehydration, a sharp change in diet, increased physical exertion, as well as gout, acute and chronic nephritis, and acute renal failure.
The diagnosis is never made solely on the basis of a general urine test. The same indicators may correspond to the most diverse diseases, therefore there is no sense in trying to decipher the general urinalysis on your own. If the doctor finds a deviation from the norm, he will prescribe additional studies that will help establish the only correct diagnosis.
Where can I submit urine for general analysis?
Urinalysis is done in many laboratories, but how to choose a reliable one? Pay attention to a few points – the popularity and reputation of the clinic, the availability of modern equipment, the professionalism of the workers, the patient reviews and, of course, comfort. As already mentioned, urine samples cannot be stored for a long time, and the convenient location of the laboratory often becomes a decisive argument. However, we should not neglect the other factors, because not only the speed of obtaining results, but also their accuracy ultimately depends on the professionalism of doctors and laboratory technicians, on the technical equipment of the laboratory.
We recommend to pay attention to the laboratories INVITRO – this is a modern technology, highly professional specialists, a quality control system of work and a wide network of branches covering the whole country. In Moscow and the Moscow region alone, there are hundreds of branches, and in whatever district you live, there will always be at least one lab network somewhere nearby. All of them work according to uniform quality standards and according to a schedule convenient for customers, each of which provides a wide range of diagnostic medical services and the highest level of service. In the independent medical laboratory “INVITRO” the analysis results, processed by professional specialists, will be ready within a few hours.
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