Furunculosis is quite a dangerous disease. This problem affects not only a small area of the skin, causes pain, but also affects the body as a whole. The disease can have quite serious complications – sepsis, abscess, meningitis. What is a boil and the reasons for their appearance. Why antibiotics for boils necessary treatment.
What is a boil
Inflammation in the middle layer of the skin, or rather in the hair follicle, caused by pathogens, followed by suppuration, is called furuncle.
Skin blisters can appear on any parts of the body where there is hair, but the most common places of localization are the outer and inner thighs, the lumbar back, buttocks, the occipital part of the head, neck, face. A single boil is called a single boil. Medicine refers to furunculous disease and other types of:
- Carbuncle – multiple inflammation in one area of the skin. In this disease, ulcers form in several follicular sacs, the inflammation merges under the skin, and the lesion can be quite large. Boils ripen alternately, skin breakthrough can be in several places at once.
- Pilonidal sinus – this type of boil develops between the buttocks. Very painful disease.
- Purulent hydradenitis – boils always appear multiple and only in the armpits and groin area. In such suppurations there is no necrotic rod, as with other types of furunculosis. It is useless to treat this disease with medications only; surgery is usually required, since inflammation is caused by the malfunctioning of the sweat glands.
- Cystic acne – appear in the deep layer of the skin, often found in adolescence, and after hormonal adjustment of the body pass.
The disease is caused by bacteria that are commonly found on the skin of all people. Their number should not exceed 10%. If, for any reason, the protective functions of the body or skin weaken, the microbes multiply. Their number can reach 90%, and furunculosis develops.
For more information on boil types, please click here.
Factors causing furunculosis of various kinds
Causes causing skin disease can be both local and systemic failure of one or more internal organs. The population of pathogenic bacteria that cause purulent abscesses can be associated with contamination of the skin, allergies to cosmetics, micro wounds and rubbing, leading to an inflammatory process inside the follicular sac.
External stimuli can lead to the formation of a boil, for example, when individual intolerance to cosmetics or hygiene products on the skin irritation occurs, the protective functions of the skin decrease, which leads to an increase in the microbial population, and as a result the inflammatory process begins.
The deeper factors hidden inside the body include:
- General weakening of the immunity associated with diseases of internal organs, nervous diseases, unhealthy diet or lifestyle. The human immune system includes a number of organs – the lymph nodes, the spleen, the bone marrow, and others; all of these organs work to fight bacteria and viruses from the external environment. If the body is weakened for any reason and the lymphocytes cannot withstand the bacteria, the disease begins;
- Disorders in the gastrointestinal tract or pancreas – improper work in these organs leads to impaired secretory functions, the sebaceous glands can produce too much or vice versa a small amount of skin fat;
- Hormonal alteration of the body, associated with natural age periods or hormonal imbalance, lack of progesterone;
- Diseases of the liver – if there is a state of intoxication in the body, and the liver does not cope with its functions, then ulcers may appear, as well as this disease is associated with diabetes.
In connection with these or deeper reasons, a favorable atmosphere is formed for the reproduction of microbes of the species Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and certain types of fungi.
The video shows a part of the program in which a dermatologist explains the causes of boils on human skin.
Stages of development of the disease
From the moment of the formation of a small lesion under the skin and until the completion of the process, the furuncle passes through three stages:
- Education – there is a seal under the skin of red or reddish-purple color, puffiness and pain appear. Tingling or itching is possible;
- After 3 to 4 days, the second stage begins – suppuration. The boil increases in size, suppuration forms inside and a rod appears. On the surface of the skin a red-bluish tubercle with a diameter of about 3 cm with a yellowish head is visible. The process of the active stage is accompanied by acute pain and deterioration of the general condition – headache, weakness, temperature rise to 38 degrees and higher. The general condition stabilizes after the inflamed area bursts on its own or with the help of a surgical procedure. A purulent — necrotic fluid, bleeding and a yellow-green stem from pus come to the surface.
- The opened furuncle heals during the normal course of the disease for another 3-4 days, a scar is formed at the site of the crater.
All three stages take about 10 days, but sometimes there are complications, and furunculosis takes a phlegmonous or abscess form. Doctors distinguish the types of furunculosis in the course of the disease – a lung (a one-time problem), a chronic form and an acute one.
In the video, an experienced dermatologist tells in detail about the stages of development of boils and the reasons why a person’s body temperature rises.
Diagnosis of furunculosis
When the first symptoms of boils appear, it is necessary to consult a specialized specialist – a dermatologist. Diagnostic procedures will begin with a detailed survey, if the disease is a one-off, the doctor will try to find out the causes of inflammation. These may include changes in cosmetics, recent hypothermia or overheating, the effects of which were damage to the skin. Even a new bed or underwear made of synthetic materials can cause a boil.
The second step will be a dermatoscopy – this procedure is painless and consists in examining the affected skin area. After, to identify the causative agent of the inflammatory process, the doctor will take backwater.
If the disease is not a single case, and the boils in a patient is frequent or they are multiple, then additional tests will be needed, these include:
- Laboratory blood and urine tests;
- Blood test for sugar;
- Fluorography, as this disease may be due to tuberculosis;
- Ultrasound examination of internal organs;
A dermatologist may prescribe a referral to other specialists, such as a gastroenterologist, pulmonologist, or endocrinologist. They, in turn, may prescribe endoscopy or additional blood tests to detect hormonal levels.
According to the diagnosis, the treatment can be local or complex, including treatment of the skin disease itself and the reasons for its occurrence.
Depending on the diagnosis, purulent inflammations of the skin are treated either by medication or by surgical intervention. The disease is caused by bacteria, respectively, and treatment of the skin is aimed at destroying the population of pathogenic bacteria, both inside the body and outside.
In most cases, treatment of boils with antibiotics is prescribed, the choice of drugs by a doctor depends on the form of the disease, the type of bacteria that causes furunculosis, and the clinical picture of the course of the disease.
The main indications for prescribing antibiotics are if the boil is located on the face or there is a danger of inflammation of the blood vessels or lymph glands. If the boil is not one, with a chronic form or multiple furunculosis. If boils abscess.
The doctor may decide on local therapy with ointments and creams containing antimicrobial agents, and may prescribe medication with oral medications. In the latter case, ancillary drugs are prescribed that normalize the work of the organs, which are influenced by antibacterial agents.
Depending on the location of the purulent mass, the dermatologist prescribes various medications:
- The face area is the most dangerous place for purulent inflammation. Depending on the course of the disease, the doctor may decide to prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics so that complications do not start and in order to prevent the growth of the boil. Often, in such cases, medication is used orally, therapy begins in the first or second stage, even before the purulent formations reach the surface of the skin.
- Antibiotics for boils in the nose are appointed in 80% of cases, especially if the focus of inflammation is on the mucous membrane. In addition to local therapy (antiseptic solutions), an ulcer should also be treated with antimicrobial ointments or gels. If the form of the disease is severe, then pills or injections are prescribed.
- Inflammation in the groin area or acne on the scrotum – treatment is prescribed in two stages. At the first stage, depending on the stage and form of the course of the disease, intramuscular injections can be given to prevent complications, the second stage is the use of local treatment to prevent the spread of pathogens and the healing of the remaining wound. In addition, physiotherapy may be prescribed.
- Boils in the armpit – antimicrobials are prescribed depending on the stage of the disease. Therapy is local.
- The ear and the area around it – such boils are treated with injections or drugs taken by mouth. If the abscess is located inside the ear, it can not be processed by external means. Since the ear is located in close proximity to the brain, treatment is aimed at the early suppression of bacteria and preventing the spread of infection.
What antibiotics to take when boils
In total, five types of antimicrobial agents are used for the treatment of furunculosis. They are produced in different dosage forms – tablets, suspensions for injections and means for external use. In the form of tablets or injections, the penicillin group is the most common. Medicines ampicillin, amoxiclav or amoxicillin for many years successfully struggling with strains of bacteria:
- Streptococcus pneumoniae;
- Staphylococcus spp;
- Haemophilus influenzae;
- Proteus mirabilis;
- Salmonella spp, and other microorganisms that cause inflammatory processes.
The cephalosporin group – cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, and others are prescribed if the strains of pathogens are resistant to the penicillin group of drugs. These medicines cope with the bacteria:
- Staphylococcus aureus;
- Streptococcus pyogenes;
- Enterococcus spp;
- Peptococcus spp;
Tetracycline broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent is used not only in tablets, but also in medicinal ointments and gels.
Levomycetin – a potent drug with a pronounced bacteriostatic effect. It is used if the disease is powerless to cope not only with the penicillin series of medicines, but also with sulfanilamide and streptomycin preparations. These drugs have a fairly large number of side effects, in no case are not prescribed to pregnant women, nursing mothers and children.
Ointments are available in tubes or cans, the most popular antimicrobial agents are gentamicin ointment, chloramphenicol ointment, synthomycin ointment, levomekol gel, tetracycline ointment.
The use of antimicrobial drugs for furunculosis
Depending on the drug prescribed by the doctor, it is necessary to use antibiotics according to a clearly prescribed scheme. Do not skip or interrupt medication at its own discretion. Exit therapy should also according to the instructions specified by the attending physician.
Ampicillin is taken orally, that is, inside. The regimen is prescribed by the doctor depending on the severity and course of the disease. The daily intake of the drug should not exceed 3 grams, even in the most severe cases of the disease. The drug can be prescribed to children up to 1 month, but strictly necessary. The risk must be justified. The course of treatment depends on the type of furunculosis and its location. Makes from 5 days to 3 weeks.
Side effects include headache, leukopenia, seizures, anemia. The drug can not be combined with allopurinol, possible complications on the skin – rash, irritation. As with the other antibacterial drugs, different groups of antibiotics should not be used at the same time. Overdose causes a strong effect on the central nervous system, vomiting and intoxication of the body appear.
The most effective and frequently used drug for external use is Levomecol ointment. This drug is composed of an antibiotic and an immunostimulating substance. The antimicrobial component of chloramphenicol successfully copes with a large number of types of microbes that cause inflammatory processes, in particular, spirochetes, chlamydia and rickettsiae. Active in the fight against streptococci and staphylococci, as well as gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria.
The second active ingredient – methyluracil stimulates the exchange of nucleic acids, stimulates tissue regeneration and works as an anti-inflammatory agent. The ointment can be applied to boils on a compress or be injected subcutaneously.
We also recommend that you study the instructions to Trichopolus – a very effective antibacterial agent.
Treatment with antibiotics boil pregnant and lactating women, as well as children is associated with certain risks. Therefore, experts do not recommend taking antibacterial drugs orally, only the use of external agents such as ointments or gels is allowed, and solutions containing an antibiotic are also used. Children with furunculosis are prescribed by a pediatrician. The doctor, in case of furunculosis diseases, should evaluate the possible positive effect from the use of the medicine, he should no doubt repeatedly exceed the possible negative consequences and side effects.
Auxiliary drugs when taking antibiotics
Antibacterial drugs are usually prescribed in complex treatment. The use of topical treatment of purulent abscesses with ointments and gels is not associated with great risk. These funds lack concentration in the blood, so external funds do not pose a threat to the internal organs. The only risk remains addictive, so you can not buy in the pharmacy the first available drug with an antibiotic and use it without a doctor’s prescription. Ointments are prescribed in combination with antiseptics – lotions or alcohol-containing solutions, which are used before using the ointment.
A variety of auxiliary drugs are included with antibiotics in the form of tablets or injections. Often, antimicrobial drugs have a negative impact on the gastrointestinal tract, so the complex may be drugs aimed at restoring the intestine. Antihistamines help to eliminate allergic reactions to the drug. Sometimes with furanculosis to antibiotics, hepatoprotectors are prescribed, their action is aimed at cell regeneration and restoration of the liver.
The use of antibiotics is contraindicated in the following cases:
- Fungal diseases;
- Severe forms of heart disease, kidney, liver;
- Bronchial asthma;
- Severe allergic reaction to drug components.
Furunculosis is a serious disease that can have extremely unpleasant consequences, but anti-bacterial treatment is not always required. In some cases, it is enough to revise the diet and lifestyle, abandoning bad habits. The reluctance to follow these recommendations may well lead to these consequences.