Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose penetrate the tissues of the body and form energy. If this process is disrupted, insulin resistance develops – one of the main reasons for the development of type 2 diabetes.
To determine the pathology there is a so-called HOMA index (HOMA). What is it and how is it calculated?
It is believed that insulin sensitivity is reduced due to excess weight. But it happens that insulin resistance develops with normal weight. More often pathology occurs in men after 30 years, and in women after 50.
Previously it was thought that this condition affects only adults, but in recent years, the diagnosis of insulin resistance in adolescents has increased 6 times.
In the development of insulin resistance there are several stages:
- In response to the ingestion of carbohydrate foods, the pancreas secretes insulin. It keeps blood sugar levels at the same level. The hormone helps the muscle cells and fat cells absorb glucose and convert it into energy.
- The abuse of harmful food, lack of physical activity, and smoking reduces the work of sensitive receptors, and the tissues stop interacting with insulin.
- The blood glucose level rises, in response to this, the pancreas begins to produce more insulin, but it still remains not involved.
- Hyperinsulinemia leads to a constant feeling of hunger, impaired metabolic processes and high blood pressure.
- Hyperglycemia, in turn, leads to irreversible consequences. Patients develop diabetic angiopathy, renal failure, neuropathy.
Causes and symptoms
The causes of insulin resistance include:
- severe infections.
- heredity – if there are relatives with diabetes in the family, then its occurrence in other family members increases dramatically;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- frequent use of alcoholic beverages;
- nerve strain;
- elderly age.
The insidiousness of this pathology lies in the fact that it has no clinical symptoms. A person may not know for a long time about the presence of insulin resistance.
Typically, this condition is diagnosed during a medical examination or when there are obvious signs of diabetes mellitus:
- frequent urination;
- constant feeling of hunger;
- change in taste preferences – people always want sweets;
- the appearance of pain in the legs, numbness, cramps;
- There may be problems with vision: goosebumps, black spots before the eyes or reduced vision.
The calculation of the index HOMA
HOMA (HOMA) is the most common method for determining insulin resistance. It is the ratio of the amount of glucose and insulin in the blood. It is determined using the formula strictly on an empty stomach.
Preparation for the analysis:
- analysis must be taken strictly on an empty stomach;
- the last meal should be 12 hours prior to analysis;
- dinner on the eve should be light;
- analysis time from 8:00 to 11:00 in the morning.
Normally, the results of analysis for people from 20 to 60 years should be from 0 to 2.7. Numbers in this range mean that the sensitivity of tissues to the hormone is normal. If the rate is increased, then the patient is diagnosed with insulin resistance.
Depending on the level of glucose in the blood there are: prediabetes and diabetes. Prediabetes is not a disease, but a serious reason to think about your diet and lifestyle.
This condition is reversible, that is, with a change in lifestyle, the occurrence of diabetes can be avoided. Without effective treatments, prediabetes will turn into type 2 diabetes.
Insulin Insensitivity Treatment
What to do when detecting insulin resistance, tell the doctor. Treatment should be comprehensive.
- low carb diet;
- drug intake;
- physical activity.
Food with impaired glucose tolerance should be low-carbohydrate. Obese patients are advised to eat 12 bread units per day. It is necessary to take seriously the choice of products for your own food – high-glycemic index foods, as well as fatty and fried foods should completely disappear from the diet.
What is allowed to eat?
- vegetables and fruits;
- low-fat dairy products;
- a fish;
- lean meat;
In the life of the patient must necessarily find a place for physical education. This may be a trip to the gym, swimming pool, jogging before bedtime. Overweight people can do sport walking. It may also be useful yoga. Her asanas will help calm the nerves, normalize sleep, improve digestion. In addition, the patient needs to make it a rule not to use the elevator, and when using public transport, go 1 – 2 stops earlier and walk to the house.
Video about diabetes, its complications and treatment:
For the treatment of a pathological condition, the doctor may prescribe the following drugs:
- Metformin – the drug blocks the release of glucose from the liver into the blood and improves the functioning of sensitive neurons. Thus, it reduces the level of insulin in the blood and helps to reduce the load on the pancreas.
- Acarbose – This is a hypoglycemic drug. It increases the absorption of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract, which, in turn, reduces the need for insulin after a meal.
- Pioglitazone – You can not take a long time due to toxic effects on the liver. This drug increases insulin sensitivity, but can trigger the onset of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, its use is extremely limited.
- Troglitazone – used to treat insulin resistance. Studies have shown that type 2 diabetes was prevented in a quarter of the people studied.
At an early stage of development of insulin resistance, you can use medicines based on popular recipes:
- Blueberries. One teaspoon of chopped blueberry leaves pour 200 ml of boiling water. After 30 minutes, strain and divide the glass into 3 doses per day. This decoction will help reduce blood sugar, but only in the early stages of the disease.
- Crimean stevia. Take 1 tablespoon of chopped Crimean stevia and pour 200 ml of boiling water. Infuse for 15 minutes, then strain. Drink all day instead of tea. Plants can reduce the level of glucose and cholesterol, improve the functioning of the liver and pancreas.
- Bean decoction. Pour 1 liter of water into a saucepan and add 20 grams of beans to it. Put on the fire and boil. Then strain the mixture. The course of treatment is 1 – 2 months. Take every day in the morning, afternoon and evening. Broth is used to maintain normal blood sugar.
- Nettle infusion. Take 800 g of nettle and pour over 2.5 liters of alcohol. Infuse for 7 days, then strain. Take three times a day half an hour before meals and 1 tablespoon.
In the modern world, every person is subject to the development of insulin resistance. If this pathology is found in oneself, a person needs to change his life as soon as possible. To restore the sensitivity of cells to insulin only drugs can not.
The patient must do a tremendous work on himself: to force himself to eat right, play sports, give up bad habits. Unfortunately, people do not want to change their own lives and do not pay attention to the recommendations of doctors, thereby provoking the development of diabetes and other terrible complications of this disease.