Recently, chronic obstructive bronchitis was given a new definition – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The disease is difficult to treat and causes a lot of complications from the respiratory system.
Bronchial obstruction – causes
The chronic form of obstructive bronchitis is a dangerous violation of ventilation. The disease results from prolonged irritation of the alveoli in the bronchi with various substances. A diffuse inflammatory process begins in the bronchial tree, the lumens narrow, making it difficult for the accumulated mucus to exit.
Obstructive bronchitis easily goes from acute to chronic because it can go on for months without severe symptoms. Not always this type of bronchitis is the result of complications of influenza or ARVI. Among the causes of obstructive bronchitis are:
- active and passive smoking
- regular inhalation of air contaminated with ammonia, chlorine, organic and inorganic dust, silicon, acid fumes
- age range after 40 years
- genetic factor
- frequent infections in the nasopharynx
- recurring respiratory diseases
- poisoning, injuries, burns
Primary acute bronchitis with obstruction in most cases develops on the background of viral or bacterial infections. Degenerative processes in the lungs lead to the fact that the bronchi produce more mucus than can be removed.
The prevalence of the disease is associated by physicians with an unfavorable situation in the megalopolises. As a rule, chronic obstructive bronchitis is more often diagnosed to smoking men after 40 years.
If for two years the patient has experienced bronchitis with obstruction with a duration of episodes of at least 3 months, then he is diagnosed with a chronic form of the disease.
Classification of obstructive bronchitis
There are several types of bronchitis with obstruction syndrome.
Acute form. In adults, it is rarely seen as a complication of an infectious disease. If the causative agent of the disease is a virus, the patient quickly recovers because only the surface layer of the bronchi is affected. If the culprit of bronchitis is a fungus, bacterium or allergens, then bronchial walls are affected, which leads to the development of chronic recurrent obstructive bronchitis. Symptoms of the acute form of pathology include:
- temperature not higher than 37.5 °
- obsessive dry cough with poorly detached sputum
- cough worse at night
- exhalation noises
- white or colorless mucus
Chronic form. It is characterized by periods of exacerbation and remission, progressive pathology, bronchial patency may be reversible or irreversible. Exacerbations are possible both in winter and in the offseason. For the chronic form, the signs are inherent:
- daily exhausting cough usually in the morning, sometimes during the day, when certain odors, cold air become a triggering factor
- severe dyspnea that occurs with little exertion
- heavy breathing with a whistle, exhalation is particularly difficult the amount of sputum is small, there may be blood particles (a strong fit of cough leads to rupture of small capillaries of the bronchial tree)
- in the period of exacerbation, the mucus becomes purulent, which indicates the accession of a secondary infection
Against the background of exacerbation, the temperature rises to 38 °, but not higher. The patient feels very weak, tired after a short physical exertion. Transfer the disease on his feet will not work: obstructive bronchitis literally puts the person in bed.
Irreversible processes in the chronic form of the disease can lead to the development of asthma.
Bronchitis in chronic form has its own characteristics:
- At first, the intervals between exacerbations are long, relapse occurs only against a background of another infectious disease, but extremely rarely. After two or three years, the patient almost always remains in a state of recurrence of obstructive bronchitis: shortness of breath in a state of rest and whistling sounds during breathing.
- The chronic form of bronchitis with obstructive syndrome is finally formed 7-10 years after the first diagnosis. Progressive dyspnea transforms into respiratory failure.
- The shape of the fingers changes – from a chronic lack of oxygen, the fingers of the hands become similar to the drumsticks, the nails become convex.
- The patient is bothered by the sticky cold sweat on his hands, and the sweat acts both under load and in a calm state.
- A persistent wet cough manifests itself throughout the day, is aggravated at night and just before dawn, the sputum is very difficult.
- In the morning hours, the mucus comes out more than during the day, it has a bitter aftertaste and an unpleasant putrid odor.
- The most comfortable position of the patient – half-sitting. In this position, the person feels less short of breath.
- In the chronic form of obstructive bronchitis, moist rales and hard breathing are heard without special medical instruments.
Of the outward signs, a distinctive feature is swollen veins in the neck: the result of constant shortness of breath. Due to oxygen deficiency, the skin becomes pale or even with a bluish tinge.
In patients after 60 years of age, signs of chronic obstructive bronchitis are similar to manifestations of lung emphysema.
How to treat obstructive bronchitis
The success of treatment depends on the patient himself and is aimed at reducing the rate of progression of the disease. First of all, it is necessary to cure the disease that caused the relapse of obstructive bronchitis. Smokers should be tied up with a bad habit, people who have acquired the disease in a harmful industry, it is desirable to change the profession.
To eliminate the symptoms of the disease and go into the remission stage, a whole complex of drugs is prescribed:
Obstructive bronchitis treatment methods
- Bronchodilators. The greatest effect of drugs is achieved by injecting them with inhalations, in severe cases, the drug is administered intravenously. For removal of bronchospasm used: Eufillin, Atrovent, Salbutamol, Berotek, Teopek.
- Mucolytic drugs to liquefy viscous sputum, reducing the amount of mucus produced. To stimulate the withdrawal of excess mucus from the lungs are assigned: Bronhikum, ACC, Lasolvan, Gederin, Ascoril, Gerbion.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminate inflammation in the bronchi: Diclofenac, Phenylbutazone. Often used glucocorticoids in view of their effectiveness in the treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis: Prednisolone.
- Antibiotics. Shown only in the event of a bacterial infection on the background of bronchitis. The decision on taking antibiotics must be made by a doctor. The course of antibiotics ranges from 7 to 14 days, of the drugs are used Amoxicillin, Flemoklav, Augmentin, Azithromycin.
In the stage of remission, they continue to use expectorant drugs; breathing exercises according to the Buteyko or Strelnikova method are recommended. To improve immunity, it is desirable to drink a multivitamin complex.
During the recurrence of bronchitis should be avoided sudden changes in temperature: such jumps provoke coughing. People with chronic obstructive bronchitis are not allowed in a dusty, stuffy room with low humidity.
Some drugs for cores also contribute to the enhancement of cough: ACE inhibitors should be changed to a similar drug, taking it during bronchitis is contraindicated.
Grandmother’s method of heating banks with exacerbation of chronic bronchitis with obstruction is prohibited. It is undesirable to visit baths and saunas in order not to aggravate the inflammatory process, especially when a bacterial infection is present.
In most cases, treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis in adults takes place at home. For treatment in the hospital there are indications:
- bronchial obstruction symptoms do not go away after home therapy
- sudden development of acute respiratory failure
- the need for bronchoscopy
- probability of heart failure
During remission, antibacterial drugs are not used in the treatment of obstructive bronchitis.
Nebulizer inhalation with COB – benefits
The effectiveness of inhalations with medicinal solutions using a nebulizer has been proven by medicine. For obstructive bronchitis, it is preferable to use devices that create an aerosol without increasing the temperature.
With bronchitis with obstructive inhalation syndrome with essential oils and medicinal herbs are prohibited. Herbal ingredients can cause allergies, resulting in increased swelling of the bronchi.
For chronic obstructive bronchitis, inhalation is recommended:
- Low alkaline mineral water (Borjomi, Polyana Kvasova, Narzan). For 1 inhalation consumed 4 ml of mineral water. The alkaline composition moisturizes the mucous membranes down to the small bronchial alveoli, where the drug converts thick sputum to a liquid consistency. Treatments with mineral water are allowed up to 4 times a day.
- Berodual. The most effective remedy for alleviating the symptoms of bronchitis. The drug has a minimum of side effects, it is indicated in severe cases to prevent an asthma attack. The interval between inhalations with Berodual is 4 hours.
- Berotek. Used to expand the bronchial lumen with chronic bronchial obstruction. Berotek is well tolerated, up to 4 inhalations per day are allowed.
Nebulizer is an excellent tool for the treatment of chronic bronchitis at home. Due to splitting into microparticles, the drug penetrates into the deepest layers of the respiratory tract.
The device allows you to enter large doses of the medicinal solution, so the nebulizer is often used to eliminate choking during bronchospasm.
After the procedure, the patient must lie down, do not leave the room to avoid temperature drops.
Exacerbation of COP: Power and Regimen
The main condition during the exacerbation of obstructive bronchitis is bed rest. Patients need to sleep at least 8 hours. To speed up the process of recovery, it is necessary to air the room in which the patient is located at least 2 times daily.
Recommended walks in the fresh air in good sunny weather. During relapse, heavy physical labor is forbidden, patients should not overheat and supercool.
The right diet
Diet during exacerbation of the disease is aimed at eliminating edema of the bronchial tree, stimulating immunity, replenishing protein reserves. Food should be high-calorie, not less than 3000 calories / day with a predominance of proteins.
- dairy products: cheese, milk, cottage cheese
- fruits with vitamin C: orange, lemon, raspberry, grapefruit
- products with omega-3 acids: fish oil, cod liver
- products containing magnesium: nuts, bananas, sesame, pumpkin seeds, rye bread, buckwheat, olives, tomatoes
- vitamins A and E: green peas, beans, spinach, peach, avocado, carrots
At the time of treatment of relapse, it is necessary to reduce the consumption of sugar and salt, to limit the ingestion of food-allergens (tea, chocolate, coffee, cocoa). Acute, spicy, smoked products contribute to the development of bronchospasm, so they should also be eliminated from the diet or eaten in small quantities.
To speed up the excretion of sputum is recommended to drink a lot: tea with raspberries or ginger, fresh juices, fruit drinks, decoction of mint, lime, sage.
The chronic form of obstructive bronchitis can easily turn into bronchial asthma, so the disease should not be allowed to take its course. In the treatment of airway pathology, it is important to prevent irreversible changes in the bronchi and slow the progression of obstruction.
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