Hypertrophic rhinitis is characterized by chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and its growth (hypertrophy).
Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis usually occurs as a result of a prolonged inflammatory process in the nasal cavity or prolonged vasomotor rhinitis. Also, the development of hypertrophic rhinitis contributes to the curvature of the nasal septum, drug-induced rhinitis, pathology of the sinuses, allergic rhinitis.
Symptoms of hypertrophic rhinitis
Patients with hypertrophic rhinitis note the constant difficulty of nasal breathing, reduction in the sense of smell and taste of varying severity, the appearance of nasal voices, recurrent headache, and fatigue. It is also possible the appearance of discharge from the nasal mucous membrane or mucopurulent character.
Diagnosis of hypertrophic rhinitis includes an assessment of the patient’s complaints, the results of the examination of the nasal cavity, radiography of the paranasal sinuses or computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses. The patient must undergo diagnostic endoscopy of the nasal cavity. A test for the contractility of the nasal concha (adrenalization) can also be performed in order to evaluate mucosal hypertrophy.
In addition, the patient must be rinomanometry. This method allows you to objectively assess the permeability and airflow resistance in each of the nasal passages.
It is customary to distinguish two main types of chronic hypertrophic rhinitis: diffuse and local (limited).
In case of violation of nasal breathing, decrease in smell, prolonged course of rhinitis, you should consult a doctor (otorhinolaryngologist) for consultation.
Treatment of hypertrophic rhinitis
A patient with hypertrophic rhinitis is given a comprehensive treatment. Conservative (drug) therapy for hypertrophic rhinitis is aimed at eliminating inflammation of the nasal mucosa. However, due to the fact that the basis of this disease is structural changes in the nasal mucosa, the main method of treatment is surgical.
Surgical treatment of chronic rhinitis is aimed at creating anatomical space in the respiratory zone of the nasal cavity to ensure normal nasal breathing. Usually, surgical treatment involves the removal or reduction of hypertrophied areas of the nasal mucosa.
Hypertrophic rhinitis leads to a significant violation of nasal breathing, which adversely affects the quality of sleep, as well as the life of the patient as a whole. Also, hypertrophic rhinitis can lead to hyposmia (decrease in smell) or anosmia (complete loss of smell).
Also, hypertrophic rhinitis can cause impaired ventilation of the auditory tube, causing ear congestion and hearing loss. In addition, in hypertrophic rhinitis, compression of the lacrimal-nasal canal opening is possible, which leads to the appearance of conjunctivitis, lacrimation, and dacryocystitis (inflammation of the lacrimal sac).
Prevention of hypertrophic rhinitis
Prevention of hypertrophic rhinitis, first of all, provides for the timely and adequate treatment of acute rhinitis and other diseases of the upper respiratory tract.