Cystitis is one of the most common diseases in urological practice.
This pathology is an inflammatory process localized on the mucous membrane of the bladder.
Women get sick much more often than men. This is due to the anatomical features of the structure of the genitourinary system: the urethra in women is shorter and wider, which is why infectious agents are much easier to move along the vertical path. The most susceptible to cystitis are women aged 20 to 45 years. Symptoms and treatment of this disease, we will consider in this article.
Cystitis is an infectious disease and is most often caused by such microorganisms as: E. coli (more than 70% of cases), staphylococcus, other bacteria. Most often, the disease occurs due to the transfer of infection from the lesion located below (vulvovaginitis of various etiologies) or non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene (improper leaching). In addition, we can not exclude the hematogenous route of infection, in which the pathogens of the disease move along the bloodstream.
The downward pathway of infection also occurs in this disease. In this case, the bacteria enter the bladder from the overlying parts of the urinary system (kidneys, ureters) with a stream of urine (for example, during pyelonephritis).
Often the causes of cystitis in women may be due to abnormal development of the organs of the urinary system (strictures, underdevelopment, etc.). Oncological diseases also interfere with the normal discharge of urine, causing its stagnation and infection.
A number of provoking factors that reduce the overall immune resistance of the body can affect the appearance and development of the disease. These factors include the following:
- transferred infectious gynecological, venereal or urological diseases with acute or chronic course (adnexitis, salpingitis, salpingoophoritis, pyelonephritis, urethritis)
- prior hypothermia;
- regular prolonged sitting in a sitting position (working at a computer for more than 3 hours, not rising from the table, leads to stagnation of urine, its possible infection);
- reduced immunity caused by pregnancy;
- decrease in immune forces caused by diabetes mellitus;
- the presence of chronic foci of infection (tonsillitis, caries, rhinitis, etc.);
- taking drugs that have an immunosuppressive effect (cytostatics, hormones);
- frequent stressful situations and emotional stress;
- irregular nutrition and lack of sleep;
- non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene (rare change of hygiene during menstruation, improper washing, irregular change of underwear);
- traumatic injury to the back;
- pathological conditions in which there is no complete emptying of the bladder (neurological diseases, previous injuries of the spinal cord, neurogenic bladder, etc.);
- early onset of sexual activity;
- elderly age.
Symptoms of cystitis in women
Clinical symptoms, as well as signs of cystitis in women, have a vivid picture in the case of an acute process.
When the cystitis takes a chronic course, the symptoms in women become erased, and the disease is less noticeable.
Suspect the development of the disease possible if there are several of the following symptoms:
- 1) Frequent urge to urinate (sometimes every quarter of an hour);
- 2) Soreness, cramps, burning sensation along the urethra during urination, the peak of which is observed at the very end of urination;
- 3) Pain in the womb (in the suprapubic area), may be an independent phenomenon, and may accompany the process of urination;
- 4) turbidity of urine;
- 5) The presence of flakes, purulent clots in the urine;
- 6) Excretion of urine with an unpleasant pungent odor;
- 7) Hematuria – the presence of blood in the urine;
- Feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder;
- 9) Perhaps the appearance of pain in the lumbar spine or in the projection of the kidneys (if the pathological inflammatory process went up and affected the kidneys);
- 10) With long-term course and the absence of adequate treatment, enuresis may develop (inability to retain urine).
In addition, in severe cases of cystitis in women, there may be general symptoms: an increase in body temperature (usually 37-37.5 ° C), general weakness, indisposition, nausea and vomiting (as a reaction of the body to infectious intoxication), chills. Therefore, to deal with the question of how to treat cystitis should be in time to avoid complications.
Complications of cystitis in women
With proper treatment, cystitis in women passes quickly enough. But with an incorrectly chosen treatment regimen or the lack of impact on the disease, a number of complications may develop, among which it is customary to single out the following:
- 1) The transition of inflammation into the depths (on the muscular layer of the bladder) – interstitial cystitis. The reason for this transition may be vesicoureteral reflux (throwing the contents of the bladder through the ureters up);
- 2) The vertical pathway of infection to the organs of the urinary system, located above (kidney), can lead to the development of comorbidities: pyelonephritis, kidney abscess, etc .;
- 3) Bladder rupture, which results in peritonitis (a rather rare, but still possible complication).
See also, the symptoms of cystitis in men.
Diagnosis of the disease
Quite a bright clinical symptoms can suspect the presence of cystitis in women, the diagnosis needs confirmation and differential diagnosis with diseases of other organs of the genitourinary system.
So, for the formulation of a correct diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct and evaluate such research methods as:
- careful collection of history (recently transferred inflammatory diseases, hypothermia, the presence of dubious sexual partners, etc.);
- examination by a general practitioner and gynecologist (for differential diagnosis with inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs);
- general blood analysis;
- blood chemistry;
- general urine analysis;
- urine analysis according to nechyporenko;
- urine culture to identify the pathogen and determine its sensitivity to antibacterial drugs;
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs (kidneys, bladder, uterus, ovaries);
- review urography (determines the pathology of the kidneys, ureters);
- examination of the vaginal microflora (for differential diagnosis with vulvovaginitis or coleitis).
Treatment of cystitis in women
As a rule, the treatment of cystitis in women should be comprehensive. For treatment, several groups of drugs are used: antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immunomodulators, antispasmodics, uroseptics (see tablets for cystitis).
Among uroseptikov preference is given to such drugs as: Furagin, as well as plant (Canephron H, bear ears, lingonberry leaf, bearberry). In cases of severe pain, the use of no-shpy is shown. To reduce inflammation, the use of NSAIDs is recommended. The drugs of choice among antibiotics are: Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Ofloxacin, Monural, Furadonin.
In addition to taking medications, it is advisable to follow some rules at home that will help cure cystitis faster:
- 1) Drink plenty of liquids first. It is better to give preference to cranberry or lingonberry juice, as well as plain water without gases.
- 2) Warming up. You can apply to the place that hurts the heating pad, or an ordinary bottle filled with water of the required temperature.
- 3) Remove from the daily diet foods that are high in calcium. These are milk, cottage cheese, cheese and
Without adequate treatment, often, the cystitis becomes chronic. If a woman has a tendency to frequent recurrence of the disease, then she needs to observe the main preventive measures:
- do not supercool;
- use enough liquid (at least 1-1.5 liters per day);
- not sitting for a long time in a sitting position (when sitting, it is recommended to periodically get up and warm up, walk);
- when urging to urinate, do not tolerate;
- timely treatment of the chronic process of any localization;
- use of personal protective equipment during sexual intercourse;
- compliance with the rules of personal hygiene of the genital organs (especially during menstruation).
Observe these preventive measures so as not to treat women with cystitis again.
What kind of doctor to contact a woman
In the event of symptoms of cystitis, first of all, a woman needs to consult a urologist to clarify the diagnosis, it is he who deals with the treatment and diagnosis of this disease. It may be necessary to pass an additional urinalysis – general, for bacterial inoculation according to Nechyporenko, and also to conduct an ultrasound of the bladder and a cytoscopic examination (when the urethra and bladder are visualized by means of a special device – a cystoscope).
In addition, it is advisable to visit a gynecologist, as the causative agent of cystitis can be not only ordinary bacteria, but also STIs. In this regard, consultation of the gynecologist and delivery of a smear for the study of microflora in the vagina are also necessary.
In most cases, with appropriate treatment and the execution of all prescriptions of the doctor, cystitis disappears within a week.
Which doctor to contact for treatment?
If, after reading the article, you assume that you have symptoms characteristic of this disease, then you should consult a gynecologist for advice.