Unfortunately, endocrine diseases are becoming more common. These diseases are so specific that a person can overlook the physical and psychological changes that occur to him until others tell him about these problems. This article will discuss the diseases associated with the thyroid gland in humans.
What is a thyroid gland
Before considering the location of the thyroid gland in the body, it is necessary to understand what kind of organ.
- Thyroxine, or tetraiodothyronine (T4), is a precursor to the hormone triiodothyronine. It activates the metabolism, is responsible for the growth and development of man, as well as for the metabolism.
- Triiodothyronine (T3) is the main hormone of the thyroid gland. Along with the functions of thyroxin, it is responsible for the level of wakefulness, mental and physical activity. Increases blood pressure, blood glucose levels, increases the breakdown of fat and inhibits its deposition.
- Calcitonin, or thyrocalcitonin (peptide hormone), prevents bone decay, prevents bone deterioration due to the incorporation of calcium.
The location of the thyroid gland, the structure
The human thyroid gland is a dicotyledonous organ. The lobes are connected by an isthmus, located under the larynx and attached to the gland by connective tissue. In form, this organ is similar to the letter “H” or an inverted butterfly – the lower parts of both lobes are wide and shortened, and the upper ones, on the contrary, are narrow and long.
We present a photo of the location of the thyroid gland in women. In this case, the patient has its increase. If the thyroid gland is normal, visually it is not visible.
- Newborn baby – 5-6 grams.
- The first year of life – a decrease to 2-2.5 grams.
- By the age of transition – 10-14 gr.
- At 25 years old – 18-24 grams.
- At advanced age after 60 years – gradually decreases.
Volumetric indicators of the thyroid gland
On examination, the endocrinologist probes the gland to determine the extent of its increase. There are three degrees of increase in this organ of the endocrine system:
- 0th degree – the absence of goiter.
- 1st degree – the visual goiter seems to be absent, but it is felt on palpation.
- Grade 2 – goiter is clearly visible in the normal position of the neck.
Types of thyroid related diseases
If there are problems with the thyroid gland and it stops producing hormones in the right quantity, many important biological processes in the body fail, which leads to various diseases:
- Hypothyroidism is a disease characterized by a long shortage of iodine-containing hormones of the gland due to a decrease in its functioning.
- Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) is the opposite of hypothyroidism, manifested by the uncontrolled production of thyroid hormones and increased thyroid function.
- Autoimmune thyroiditis – due to a genetic defect in the immune system, chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland develops.
- Myxedema is an extreme form of hypothyroidism, characterized by insufficient provision of body tissues with iodine-containing hormones.
- Cretinism – a form of congenital hypothyroidism, in which there is a decrease in child development. There is a strong lack of iodine-containing hormones.
- Diffuse toxic goiter – a hereditary autoimmune disease. It is also called a bazedovoy disease. Due to excessive secretion of thyroxin and triiodothyronine, these hormones are poisoned (hyperthyroidism).
- Adenoma of the thyroid gland is a benign tumor, marked by the appearance of nodes at the location of the thyroid gland.
- Thyroid cancer – is a malignant tumor in people who have problems with the endocrine system.
In women, hypothyroidism is more common 18-19 times than in men. For every 1000 men, one is sick, and for women – 19 per 1,000.
Signs of diseases of the endocrine system
For various diseases of the thyroid gland are characterized by different signs of leakage. When hypothyroidism is:
- In the initial stage, the symptoms are mild.
- Sleep problems – insomnia or sleepiness.
- Fatigue, increased lethargy during the day.
- Impairment of memory and mental activity.
- Problems with the gastrointestinal tract.
- Quick weight gain, obesity.
- Violation of the female menstrual cycle.
- Reaction to too hot and cold weather.
- Decreased body temperature.
- Hypotension and bradycardia.
- Hair loss, brittle nails.
- Numbness of the limbs, cramps, muscle pain.
- Low level of hemoglobin in the blood, anemia.
- Reduced immunity.
- Reduced sexual function in men.
- Reduced adrenal function.
- During pregnancy, there are malformations in the fetus.
Signs of mild hyperthyroidism
depending on the stage of the disease, the symptoms of its manifestation are different. In mild form, they are as follows:
- Moderate weight loss.
- The increase in heart rate during tachycardia, but not more than one hundred beats per minute.
- Irritability appears.
- Increased sweating of the body, even in conditions of normal ambient temperature.
Signs with medium form
The average severity of hyperthyroidism is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Weight loss more than 10 kg.
- Tachycardia up to 120 beats per minute, may even occur during sleep.
- Frequent loose stools.
- Finger tremor with tension of hands.
- Irritability and excitability increase, whining and general anxiety appear.
- Severe sweating (hyperhidrosis).
- Bulging eyeballs.
Symptoms in severe form
For severe hyperthyroidism are characteristic:
- Increase in all symptoms with moderate disease.
- There is a tremor of the whole body, not just the hands.
- Persistent tachycardia up to 120-140 beats per minute or more.
- Pronounced weight loss.
- Increased exophthalmos (bulging of the eyeballs).
- Visual increase in thyroid size.
In accordance with the disease of a particular person, the endocrinologist will prescribe a treatment appropriate to the patient. There are three groups of methods of treatment of this disease:
- The elimination of thyroid hormone deficiencies produced in the thyroid gland, the location of which we considered. Lack of hormones is compensated by taking hormone-containing drugs. Endocrinologists usually suggest taking L-thyroxin, Eutirox, and formulations with inorganic iodine, such as Tireote or Jodtirox. Only the attending physician can prescribe the exact dosage and preparation! Most likely, taking these drugs will have for life.
- For the treatment of diseases associated with hyperfunction of the endocrine system, thyrostatics are used. These may be Tyrozol, Mercazolil, or Propitsil. They suppress the production of thyroid-stimulating hormones, are used to treat hyperthyroidism and to prepare for surgery. Along with thyreostatics, beta-blockers or sedatives can be prescribed.
- The operation is an extreme remedy for serious problems with the thyroid gland, located in the human cervical region. This resection or complete removal of the organ – thyroidectomy. Anatomically perform operations on the thyroid gland is difficult because of the formations adjacent to it, which are easily damaged during surgery. This may entail serious or life threatening consequences for the patient. The Nobel laureate Theodor Kocher developed safe methods for operating the thyroid gland, taking into account its active blood supply. A photo of the location of the thyroid gland is presented above.
Endocrine Disease Prevention
A huge role in the prevention of endocrine diseases is played by proper nutrition. Products such as sea fish, sea kale, iodized salt, fresh vegetables and fruits are rich in iodine, so they must be included in the diet.