A throat burn is a fairly common type of traumatic injury to the body. It represents damage to the mucous membrane of the larynx, oropharynx with hot drinks or chemicals. Throat burn is more common in children, but in everyday life it also often occurs in adults.
Due to the risk of serious consequences, the prevention of this injury is very important and obligatory for implementation. Since throat burns in many situations are not isolated, but combined with injury to the oral cavity, esophagus, and sometimes the trachea and bronchi, the consequences can be very dangerous.
Causes of Throat Burns
Damage to the mucous membrane of the throat and larynx can occur for a variety of reasons. Conditions for the occurrence of injury in the home, under the influence of alcohol, and sometimes in the production abound. A throat burn can be accidental, and in severe cases, it is not only the surface layers of tissues that can cover, but also cartilage, ligaments, and muscles.
A distinctive feature of burns with chemical agents is that the effect of the latter does not end with the moment it hits the tissues of the body. Alcohol, vinegar, acids continue to destroy cells until fully neutralized. Acids produce muscle protein coagulation, resulting in a dry scab, and the ingress of acid into very deep tissue is almost eliminated. Alkalis, on the contrary, dissolve proteins and make the so-called wet necrosis, which only aggravates the ingress of the substance into the body. Of the chemical agents, people most often burn their throats:
- citric acid;
- sulfuric, hydrochloric acids;
- caustic soda and
Very often, people who have used iodine to rinse, lubricate the tonsils (in its high concentration) complain about a throat burn. This can occur when using folk recipes for tonsillitis and pharyngitis with iodine when mistakenly adding it to the solution. Pure or slightly diluted iodine is very aggressive and causes severe tissue burn during use. Also, doctors warn that even if there are ulcers, wounds or very severe inflammation of the throat, even iodine chemist’s drugs (for example, Lugol, Yoks) can cause a burn.
No less often, people seek help from specialists after injuring the mucous membrane of the throat with boiling water. Hot fluid quickly causes burn blisters to appear on the palate, on the tongue, throughout the throat. It is possible to burn with boiling water accidentally, due to an oversight, but, as a rule, chemical burns are more serious and their treatment is longer. Also, a thermal burn of the pharyngeal mucosa can be obtained as a result of eating too hot food, and a burn of the larynx can occur when hot steam is inhaled (for example, when trying to treat pharyngitis over a steam of decoction of herbs).
Burn damage to the throat and larynx can be divided into three degrees according to severity:
- the first is a superficial burn, visually looks like a hyperemia, a small swelling of the mucous membrane;
- the second is deeper tissue damage, as a result of which blisters and grayish films form against the background of hyperemic tissues;
- the third – the burn covers the layers of tissues lying below the mucous membrane, causing their necrosis and the appearance of crusts (scab).
If a throat injury occurs, the person may experience the following symptoms:
- pain when swallowing, usually intense, excruciating;
- pain, burning at rest in the area of the throat;
- copious saliva;
- vomiting, nausea;
- increase in body temperature (up to 38 degrees);
- swelling of the tissues of the mouth;
- swelling, tenderness of the lymph nodes;
- in case of chemical burn – the presence of a characteristic odor from the mouth or vomit;
- when burned with iodine vomit mass becomes bluish, brown;
- during alkaline burns – oily vomiting with particles of mucous membranes;
- at 2.3 degrees of injury, the person’s general condition is seriously affected;
- The consequences of severe burns of the throat can be collapse and choking.
When a burn covers areas of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, the above mentioned clinic can be supplemented with cough, a feeling of lack of air, chest pains, and a change in voice. If a person additionally damaged the esophagus, the pain increases during vomiting, swallowing food.
Isolated burns in adults are usually not dangerous, and their severity rarely goes beyond grade 1-2. As a rule, the most unpleasant symptom of injury is severe pain, which disappears as the tissue heals (up to 7 days). The spread of burns to the lower gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system causes much more serious consequences.
Treat burns should begin at home, as the quality of first aid provided sometimes depends on the health of the patient in the future. The first item in the list of measures to help a person is finding out exactly what caused the burn. This can be done on the basis of a survey of the victim, his relatives, as well as the smell coming from the mouth, from vomitus.
In a thermal burn, a person is given to drink cool water in small sips. If possible, ice should be crushed, and then allowed to swallow it piece by piece. The sore throat is perfectly relieved by anesthetics, which can be taken without dilution, or diluted with water or saline (if indicated in the instructions). If a thermal burn is so severe, then it is necessary to treat it immediately after it has arisen by rinsing the throat with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. View a list of anesthetic throat pills
In case of chemical burns, you should try to neutralize the substance that entered the body. If the burn is caused by acid, then you need to gargle with a solution of soda (a teaspoon per glass), or a weak solution of magnesia burnt. In the event of an injury associated with alkali ingestion, first aid consists in rinsing with a solution of citric acid (0.1%) or with a solution of acetic acid (2 teaspoons per liter of water). In case of chemical burn, it is necessary to wash the stomach of a person, as well as give him to drink a glass of milk and some vegetable oil. In case of any burn, if it is not associated with superficial damage to the mouth by boiling water or hot food, an ambulance should be called.
Further therapy will largely depend on the complexity of the injury and on which particular organs are affected. Usually, the treatment of victims with 2.3 degrees of severity of the pathology is performed in a hospital. With 1 degree burn can be treated at home under the supervision of a physician. Therapy should include the following methods:
- pain relief of heavy sensations with morphine, non-narcotic analgesics for oral administration, rinsing the oropharynx with anesthetic solutions (lidocaine, anesthesin);
- as sedatives – treatment with valerian, bromine;
- to prevent infection and suppuration – antibiotic therapy, treatment with sulfonamides of local and systemic action;
- for the fastest possible healing of the pharynx – the infusion of oil preparations with special syringes;
- with acid burns – taking lime, soda solutions, with alkali injury – using acid solutions up to 4 times a day; Read more about using soda for sore throat.
- to reduce intoxication – the introduction of solutions of glucose, hemodez, reopoliklukina;
- to heal burns in the throat and prevent bacterial contamination – rinsing with antiseptics, oil solutions, irrigation with proteolytic enzymes.
In addition to medication, you should follow a diet (sometimes the patient can consume only liquid, rubbed food), do cold compresses on the damaged area, follow the silence mode. Usually recommended cold food – porridge, steamed vegetables. Be sure to give the vegetable and butter in its pure form up to 4 times a day.
From traditional methods of therapy, it is possible to lubricate the damaged areas of the mucous membrane with olive, sea buckthorn oil, irrigate the throat with peach, rosehip oil, gargle with warm infusion of sage, chamomile, and oak bark. Inside folk healers recommend taking egg whites, cream at room temperature, sour cream, cold broths.
Severe burns often require surgical treatment. This is required in the formation of scars and ulcers that disrupt the work of the affected organ. Especially often performed operations on the trachea, larynx, esophagus.
Child Burn Treatment
In children in everyday life, burns with boiling water and chemicals often occur. Since the lumen of the larynx and pharynx in babies is narrow, they may not swallow food and saliva at all because of edema. A severe complication of a burn is a violation of the respiratory function. In this case, the child grabs the throat, neck, gasps the mouth, can faint. Only a timely medical intervention, including surgery, as well as first aid can be of help to help your child in a difficult situation, similar to the methods mentioned above.
In childhood, the process of treatment of burns can be delayed for a long time and can be quite complicated. This is due to the depth of damage (in a child, it is often high), the inability to carry out certain types of local therapy, and the frequent addition of complications. Also, children, as a rule, have a high psychological trauma from a burn that in the future almost always requires a visit to a psychologist and other specialists.
For chemical burns in children, frequent treatments of the damaged mucous membrane with cocaine solutions with adrenaline, oil medications, proteolytic enzymes are carried out. Opium preparations are contraindicated in children, therefore they are usually limited to the administration of NSAIDs, Dimedrol, and sedatives. Antibiotics and glucocorticosteroids are injected against secondary infection (the latter are also needed to prevent laryngeal stenosis and reduce tissue swelling). Thermal burns in babies are treated in the hospital, or, with a small degree of severity, under the supervision of a pediatrician at home. Apply oil irrigation, throat lubrication, gentle diet, drinking herbal infusions and
Throat Burn Complications
Mild throat burns usually heal quickly, without a trace, as the mucous membranes of the body regenerate well. The second and third degrees of burns of the throat can lead to sad consequences. They not only can cause disability of the victim, but often become the cause of his death. The worst consequences of injury:
- the appearance of large scars on the larynx, esophagus, pharynx;
- chemical poisoning;
- shock, collapse;
- reflex respiratory arrest due to nerve damage.
Preventing throat burns
Since the vast majority of injuries occur at home, it is necessary to limit the possible risk than the likelihood of an accident will be greatly reduced. If there are young children in the house, it is important not to leave hot drinks in the area of reach, food, you should always try the food before feeding, especially when it is warmed up in the microwave.
Bottles with a mixture and milk for an infant should not be heated in a microwave oven at all. All chemicals, household chemicals should be stored in places in which children do not have access. Adults in alcohol intoxication should try to control themselves, and people who are fond of traditional medicine – to apply recipes in accordance with common sense.
And in conclusion, the heroine of the next video will share her personal experience in treating the burn with the help of an infusion of calendula.
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