But smoking is a heavy addiction – mental and physical. Many smokers are familiar with mental addiction: nerves out of order? A cigarette will help. Is it boring Cigarette if not cheer, then at least help pass the unoccupied minutes.
Physical dependence is more difficult to recognize, but it is also quite possible to see it in the graying of an inveterate smoker.
First of all, this is an increase in tolerance – from a few cigarettes a week to a couple of packs a day with time.
Secondly, it is a withdrawal syndrome in case of refusal from cigarettes – with nausea, cough, sleep disturbance, irritability.
A huge number of changes occur in the human body under the influence of smoking. Moreover, the harm is caused not only by nicotine (although it is, of course, the main source of problems), but also smoke components.
The effect of smoking on the human body affects almost all organs and systems of the human body: after all, receptors sensitive to nicotine (n-holinoreptor) are located in the central nervous system (in all its divisions), in the adrenal tissues (part of the metabolic system and the nervous regulation system of the body), in the ganglia (clusters of nerve cells) of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, in the carotid glomeruli (special receptors of the carotid artery), in the neuromuscular joints.
Effect of smoking on the cardiovascular system
A variety of studies have shown that only one smoked cigarette causes vasospasm, comparable to that with an increase in blood pressure by 10% of the norm.
With one smoked cigarette, the release of corticosteroids, adrenaline, norepinephrine increases – substances that stimulate heart activity, accelerate heart rate, increase the minute volume of the heart.
It must be said that such interventions are necessary only in really critical situations, for example, in the fall of cardiac activity as a result of acute blood loss or shock. The rest of the time, they literally wear out the heart.
There is no doubt that such an increase in the activity of the heart, and even several times a day leads to a change in the physiology of the heart rhythm, becomes a starting factor for pathologies.
The risk of developing these pathologies is also significantly increased because activation of the heart also requires more oxygenation, that is, oxygen supply to the heart. However, it is difficult for smokers: nicotine constricts blood vessels, which leads to a decrease in the volume of blood passing through the vessels, and therefore to a decrease in the amount of oxygen delivered to the heart.
We must not forget that carboxyhemoglobin (a compound of hemoglobin and carbon monoxide that does not carry oxygen and causes poisoning) is always present in the body of smokers, significantly worsening the process of oxygen transfer from the lungs to the heart.
Forced to work in conditions of chronic hypoxia, the smoker’s heart “responds” to early hypertension and angina, myocardial infarctions, which are more difficult for smokers, heart failure.
For smokers’ vessels, the development of obliterating endarteritis is typical, in which the vessels are narrowed from the inside, and the tissues around them gradually die off (necrotizing) due to the disturbance of their nutrition (trophism). It is for this reason that gangrene of the lower extremities is so typical for smokers.
The effect of cigarettes on the digestive organs
Despite the fact that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is considered to be the leading cause of gastric ulcer recently, smokers have a significantly higher incidence of peptic ulcer than in the non-smoking population. What is the matter?
It turns out that nicotine, constricting blood vessels, causes their spasm in the stomach. Spastic vessels do not fully perform their functions, including they cannot provide full trophism, oxygenation, maintain local immunity. The protective ability of the mucous is reduced, the production of gastric secretion is disturbed.
For the development of chronic infection is the optimal conditions. And the inflammation caused by the action of Helicobacter pylori, as well as the deterioration of the local trophism, leads to the formation of defects of the mucous membranes: first in the form of gastritis, then ulcers.
The upper sections of the digestive tract also suffer from smoking. Substances contained in the smoke of cigarettes are carcinogenic, tissue poisons and aggressive biologically active substances, that is, together they damage the cells of the mucous and muscular layer.
Leukoplakia of the oral mucosa (whitish lesions on the mucous membrane of the lower lip, cheeks), ulcers, small, sometimes imperceptible wounds very often (under the influence of the same smoke factors) are malignant, that is, they are reborn into a cancerous tumor.
Finally, the taste of food in smokers is different from the present of its taste: it is often noted by those who quit smoking. Suddenly, not only the elementary taste qualities – bitter – salty, sweet – spicy, but also many flavors that were unavailable during smoking began to be recognized.
This is due to the fact that nicotine and smoke inhibit the work of the taste buds, making them less sensitive.
The effect of smoking on the respiratory system
Nicotine in small doses (one smoked cigarette) excites the respiratory center, and in large doses (if you smoke 2-3 cigarettes in a row) it depresses.
However, the paradox of the action of nicotine lies in the fact that with the accumulation of smoking experience the stimulation of the respiratory center does not occur, that is, the person does not feel this negative effect, but the refusal of nicotine causes a sharp respiratory depression, which is what people who quit smoking feel.
Interestingly, it is “lack of breathing” that often becomes the reason for the return to smoking.
And nicotine and components of cigarette smoke cause chronic irritation of the upper respiratory tract, and then inflammation of all parts of the respiratory tract: from the larynx to the pulmonary alveoli.
It causes the formation of stagnation in the bronchi, and they in turn lead to chronic bronchitis, broncho-obstructive disease, frequent pneumonia and, in the presence of predisposing factors, to bronchiectasis.
The effect of smoking on the female body
The female body is very sensitive to various imbalances of its balance, a particular hormonal status. Given that the endocrine system is a target for nicotine, it is easy to predict the effect of smoking on the female body.
It can be seen even by the state of the skin: grayish, early becoming covered with fine wrinkles, dry skin of active smokers looks quite typical.
A link has been established between the state of the reproductive system and smoking: smokers more often (according to various estimates, from 1.5 to 3 times more often) experience problems with conception and / or bearing.
Pregnancy in smokers is more difficult, including from a psychological point of view: after all, even the most inveterate smoker is worried about the health of her unborn child, who is forced to “eat” nicotine.
Nicotine, by the way, easily penetrates the placental barrier and has a direct effect on the fetus, which leads to the birth of low-weight, often sick children.
Bone thinning, known as osteoporosis, is the scourge of modern women. However, smokers face it more often. Not the last role in this is played by the negative effect of nicotine and cigarette combustion products on hormones – in particular, estrogen.
It is estrogen that helps delay or reduce bone destruction, and its level in smokers is reduced under the influence of nicotine. Bad teeth can be a harbinger of future problems with bones: among smokers, almost half of women aged 50 need prosthetic dentistry, while among non-smoking women this figure is no more than a quarter.
The effect of smoking on the male body
It is not easier for men, despite the fact that the male body is stronger from the point of view of physical health. The reproductive system of smokers is exposed to direct and indirect smoking attacks.
Direct leads to a deterioration of the quantitative and qualitative indicator of sperm.
And the indirect effect – in the form of vascular spasm – reduces the severity of erection and potency, provokes the formation of adenoma, and then prostate adenocarcinoma.
The offspring of smoking men is weaker; a child born of a chronic smoker with many years of experience usually falls into the category of CBR, an often ill child.
The effect of smoking on the body of a teenager
It seems to teenagers that they are no longer children, and adult “joys”, including smoking, are quite accessible to them. But the body of adolescents is physiologically and functionally still immature — only with the end of the youthful period (approximately 22-24 years) does the final formation of the organism and the maturation of its functions take place.
The negative effect of nicotine on the body of adolescents is so diverse that it is almost impossible to isolate any brightest. The depletion of nerve cells (due to the toxic effects of nicotine) leads to a deterioration of mnestic functions, problems with learning, remembering, perception, logic.
Smoking often causes adolescent myopia and so-called “tobacco amblyopia” – the cause of their development in chronic inflammation of the optic nerve and retina.
Disruption of the endocrine system leads to a variety of pathologies: overweight, acne, oily seborrhea, hypothyroidism, and neuropsychiatric dysregulation.
Smoking impairs the functioning of the heart and blood vessels, lungs, and one of the manifestations of this effect is a decrease in physical strength and endurance in smoking adolescents.
The negative impact of smoking on the human body is so diverse and diverse that the need to quit smoking is no longer a way of healing, but rather the key to survival.
Do not overestimate the compensatory capabilities of the body – they are not able within one or two months to return the body to the quality state before smoking. However, the sooner smoking cessation occurs, the faster the reparation processes in organs and systems will begin, and it is possible – at a minimum – not to expect ill health due to smoking.
Whether smoking coding or psychological training, Allen Carr’s book or willpower, any method is good for avoiding a truly deadly nicotine trap.
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