Sometimes people go to the laboratory even before the doctor’s appointment, so that at the reception they already have forms with the results of the study.
We will talk about thyroid hormones, which blood tests you need to take, the rate of indicators in men, women and children, deciphering thyroid tests, a table of values.
After our information, you are guaranteed to come to the doctor fully armed and will not overpay money for a second appointment.
Blood test for thyroid hormones
For the average person, this term, as a rule, refers to all tests that are associated with work and diseases of the thyroid gland. But among all the indicators, only two are thyroid hormones. The rest are hormones of other glands, or are not hormones at all.
Many people tested for thyroid hormones, and this is especially true for women, because the pathology of the thyroid gland is mainly found in the beautiful half. But few people thought what those or other indicators mean.
Many people believe that the thyroid hormones include the following parameters: TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), T3 (triiodothyronine), T4 (thyroxin), antibodies to TPO, TG, and TSH receptors. What does each of them mean? Consider in order and focus on the true thyroid hormones, and you will learn about other indicators in separate articles.
- Directly to the thyroid hormone tests are the following indicators: total T3 and T4 and free T3 and T4.
- TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) – It is a pituitary hormone that has a regulating effect on the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
- Antibodies to TPO (thyroperoxidase) and antibodies to TG (thyroglobulin) are not hormones, but proteins, which are synthesized by the immune system. These are antibodies to proteins and enzymes that are involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
- Antibodies to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors – These are proteins synthesized by the immune system, which have the effects of TSH and competitively bind to receptors on the thyroid cells.
Thyroid hormones in women, men and children
Butterfly hormone glands are no different in men, women and children. The difference is only in the norms in adults and children. We will look at the rates of indicators a little lower, and now a little more about each substance.
What are thyroid hormones?
Thyroid hormones T4 (thyroxin) and T3 (triiodothyronine) are thyroid hormones, which in the blood serum of any person are in two states:
Similarly, in the laboratory, free and total hormone fractions are determined.
Protein-related hormone fractions
More than 99% of the total amount of hormones is associated with proteins. When hormones are associated with proteins, they are not active, i.e., thyroid hormones cannot exert their biological effects. The concentration of related hormones can vary depending on many factors and conditions. The level of related hormones is included in the composition of the laboratory indicator “total fraction T3 and T4”.
Here are some factors that increase or decrease the binding of hormones to proteins.
- Generalized diseases
- Kidney damage
- Neonatal period
- Estrogens and oral contraceptives
- Infections and chronic hepatitis
- Cirrhosis of the liver
- Some genetic diseases
Since this indicator changes quite often under the influence of many factors and conditions, even for diseases not related to the thyroid gland, it is currently diagnostically insignificant, but sometimes it is still prescribed. Probably because
Mostly assigned to the analysis of free T4 and free T3. These are hormones that are in the blood in a free state, and their level does not depend on external factors. He is always constant. Therefore, it reflects a more realistic picture of the thyroid gland.
Free hormone fractions
The effects of thyroid hormones are due to the free T3, free T4 is a transport form, which turns into T3 as needed. About 30% of T4 turns into T3.
In the serum, they are found in small quantities compared with the total hormone fractions: 0.03% – St. T4, 0.3% –
The half-life of T4 is 7 days, T3 is within 6 hours.
T3 is very variable throughout the day, and its fluctuations may depend on indicators such as:
- chronic severe illness
- low T3 syndrome
- euthyroid pathology syndrome
Therefore, in most cases, it is recommended to take only free T4. Currently, various methods for determining thyroid hormones are used. Therefore, in different laboratories, the norms of these indicators are different. The most popular method of analysis for thyroid hormones is the ELISA method.
How to check thyroid hormones?
Any special training is required. Blood sampling is always on an empty stomach and does not smoke 3-4 hours before the procedure. If you are taking thyroxine preparations, you should postpone the administration on that day after testing.
Rates of thyroid hormones in women and men (transcript, table)
As we said above, different laboratories use different test systems to determine the concentration of hormones in the blood. Therefore, the most accurate information will be the one that is indicated on your form in the column “reference values”. But tentatively the norms of hormones can be represented as a table:
How to convert to nanograms per deciliter (ng / dl)?
ng / dl = pmol / l divided by a factor of 12.87
Thyroid hormones: norm and pathology
These two indicators change in one direction: either increase, or decrease. The degree of change of each may be different, but the direction will always be the same.
If thyroid hormones are elevated
This situation always speaks of the condition — thyrotoxicosis, i.e., an increased thyroid function. There are a lot of reasons for this and we cannot cover everything in this article. You can use the search on the site.
If thyroid hormones are lowered
In this case, it is always a matter of low gland function, i.e., hypothyroidism, which can also be different: primary and secondary. Look for articles on this topic on the site.
Norm hormones after removal of the thyroid gland
After removal, the level of thyroid hormones is maintained, as a rule, by the appointment of a synthetic analogue of thyroxin. With it, you can keep the level of blood hormones normal.
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