P nevmoniya in medical practice is defined as acute or chronic disease of the lungs and surrounding anatomical structures, during which inflammation of the bronchi and tissues of the lungs themselves occurs. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the illness is of infectious viral origin, somewhat less often allergic or stagnant.
Almost always, pneumonia is accompanied by an intense increase in the thermometer. The lack of temperature indicates in favor of non-infectious genesis of the disease, or in favor of a weak immune response. And in fact, and in another case we are talking about the problem, because the diagnosis is complicated at times.
Causes of pneumonia without temperature
Can there be pneumonia without a temperature? Yes, definitely it can. This form of the disease develops for the following reasons:
- Formation of congestion in the pulmonary and surrounding anatomical structures of the lower respiratory tract.
In this case, inflammation develops due to the release of a large amount of intercellular fluid and the stagnation of mucus and exudate in the lung cavity. As a rule, such a lesion is not accompanied by fever, at least in the early stages, although such pneumonia is no less dangerous.
- The second stage of the development of pneumonia.
As a rule, after a few days or a week from the onset of the disease, which develops rapidly, there comes a so-called period of imaginary well-being, when the temperature drops and the patient’s general condition, such as, stabilizes. This is a false episode, which very quickly gives way to the opposite effect.
- Chronic disease.
Chronic pneumonia, when the inflammation is sluggish, is usually not accompanied by intense hyperthermia. The change in thermometer indicators develops within
- Infectious pneumonia with a weak, insufficient response of the protective system of the body. If the immunity “permits” such processes, this is a good reason to think.
- Allergic form of pneumonia. Never accompanied by fever.
It must be borne in mind that in no way the presence or absence of fever does not affect the nature of the course of the disease. This is not good and definitely does not indicate a mild form of pneumonia. Inflammation of the lungs remains the same, and perhaps even more lethal, since the immune system cannot adequately respond to the infectious agent.
Since in most cases, pneumonia has an infectious viral origin (approximately 85% of all clinical cases), it makes sense to recall the main causative agents of this pathology:
- Pneumococci. Specific bacteria most commonly affecting lung tissue. It is found as the main reason for the development of pneumonia in 50-60% of all clinical cases.
- Klebsiella. Most often cause damage to the lung structures in young patients, adults suffer less frequently.
- Staphylococcus. The greatest danger is Staphylococcus aureus. It has a high degree of contagion (contagiousness), forms multi-layered conglomerates, because the drugs are not always sufficiently effective: the outer “layer” dies, the inner ones continue to exist. Slightly less likely provokes pneumonia, green streptococcus and its hemolytic brother. They provoke relatively mild forms of inflammation, because it is precisely with such a lesion that hyperthermia is most often absent.
- Herpetic agents. Herpes virus type 1, a strain of the second type (genital herpes, is observed with oral-genital contact), a strain of the third type (provokes chickenpox, in adults it causes severe pneumonia and shingles), a strain of the fourth type (Epstein-Barr virus), cytomegalovirus and others (although the following types have been studied insufficiently).
- Atypical infectious agents, such as mycoplasma, ureaplasma, chlamydia. They provoke so-called atypical pneumonia, which often proceeds without high thermometer performance.
- Fungi. First of all candida.
Here are the most common agents. In fact, pneumonia can cause any virus or infection, not directly, so indirectly.
Factors leading to the development of the disease
It should also be said that, despite these reasons, the disease never forms, as they say, “from scratch”. Most often we are talking about factors that increase the likelihood of a problem becoming. Pneumonia is a polyfactorial and polyetiological condition provoked by a variety of factors.
Among the most common:
- Stressful situations, psycho-emotional stress, especially of a prolonged nature. They provoke the production of cortisol, norepinephrine, adrenaline, in a word, stress hormones (the adrenal glands produce these substances to mobilize the body). They suppress the immune system. Cause a serious illness, like pneumonia.
- Diseases of the chronic type, especially associated with damage to the cardiovascular system, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract. Cause a decrease in the immune system.
- General weakening of the protective function of the body. May be caused by immunodeficiency virus, frequent hypothermia, and
All these factors are often found in the complex, in different combinations. In all cases, a thorough differential diagnosis is required. In order to determine the specific disease. We can talk about other infectious-inflammatory or other ailments.
Forms of pneumonia
Pneumonia is divided into two types, depending on the nature of the process.
Accordingly, there are two types of the disease:
- Acute pneumonia. Rarely develops in the absence of fever. Most often there is a temperature, and there are thermometer indicators in the field of febrile or even pyretic values (over 39 degrees Celsius). In the period of imaginary well-being, a change in the nature of hyperthermia is observed. Failure, a decrease in body temperature below 36 degrees (hypothermia) is possible.
- Chronic pneumonia. It develops spontaneously, proceeds with sluggish indicators of the thermometer. As a rule, it affects certain parts of the pulmonary system, at the level of small segments. As a rule, we are talking about small-focal pneumonia.
Main symptoms of pneumonia without fever
Symptoms of pneumonia in an adult without fever are characterized by the following manifestations:
- The emergence of the cough reflex. Symptoms of pneumonia without fever but with cough almost always develop. Intense reflex, most pronounced at night and morning.
- Separating a large amount of sputum. Depending on the nature of the process, mucous exudate can be purulent, transparent, whitish, with blood impurities. It all depends on the type of disease. About the colors of sputum and their meaning in the diagnosis – read here.
- Dyspnea. Difficulty breathing. In the absence of treatment, shortness of breath goes into asphyxiation and ends with the development of severe respiratory failure.
- Suffocation. Extreme shortness of breath. The patient most often cannot exhale, but can inhale. Intense choking can be fatal.
- Sternum pain when breathing. Develop as a result of inflammation. Read more here.
- Tachycardia, disorders of the cardiovascular system.
- Wet or dry rales and whistles in the lungs.
- Weakness, signs of general intoxication. Possible: nausea, vomiting, lethargy, drowsiness.
Symptoms of pneumonia in an adult without temperature can occur in a complex, can occur in other combinations, it all depends on the extent of damage to the tissues of the lower respiratory tract.
Diagnostics of pathologies of the respiratory system are carried out by pulmonary specialists. It is important to go to the reception immediately after the detection of suspicious symptoms. At the initial consultation, the patient is asked about complaints, their duration, nature, type.
It is important to promptly consult a specialist and do not self-medicate. Next, anamnesis is collected: the doctor specifies which diseases the patient has suffered or is suffering from, clarifies important points. First of all, it is established whether there has been a hypothermia in the recent past, whether there have been contacts with infectious patients and
Next comes the turn of objective research:
- General blood analysis.
- General analysis of sputum.
- Examination of the chest with x-ray apparatus.
- Bronchoscopy (for controversial situations).
- Listening to a pulmonary sound with a stethoscope.
- Physical research.
- A number of functional tests.
- To verify the diagnosis is enough. MRI / CT diagnosis may also be required.
Therapeutic interventions include the use of several groups of drugs. The first shows the use of drugs of the following pharmaceutical groups.
- Anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal origin. Assigned to relieve inflammation. Contribute to a partial decrease in the intensity of pain.
- Anti-inflammatory based on glucocorticosteroids. Used for the relief of the inflammatory process in the most complex clinical cases.
- Antibacterial drugs. Appointed only and exclusively after conducting specialized events for the study of flora sensitivity to antibiotics. Otherwise, there is a high risk of becoming an even more difficult process resistant to therapy.
Pneumonia without fever is quite difficult to diagnose. A careful approach to the examination of patients is required. It is necessary to find a competent doctor and get treatment as soon as possible.