The name of this disease is widely known, and most people are afraid to face it. Surely everyone heard about the terrible procedure of puncture, I saw these incomprehensible designs of plaster and tubes on the nose. The article will discuss how not to miss the symptoms of sinusitis, when you need to consult a doctor and how to treat.
The maxillary sinuses are two cavities that are located to the left and right of the nose.
All people have 8 sinuses, 4 on each side:
- two frontal sinuses;
- two maxillary or maxillary sinuses;
- two latticed (between the nose and eyes);
- two wedge-shaped sinuses.
There are situations when one or other of the sinuses are underdeveloped. If this does not cause any worries, then this is also a variant of the norm. But, as a rule, all these sinuses are present. Sinuses can be of different shapes, different sizes (very large or very small).
Normally, the secret of the sinuses freely flows into the nose and goes outside. With a cold, the nasal mucosa swells and closes the exits from the paranasal sinuses. As a result, mucus accumulates in the sinuses, microbes multiply in it. A person has all the symptoms of sinusitis or antritis. But the main threat of sinusitis is that they border on the brain, and if the pus breaks in there, it will not be so easy to cure.
Absolutely all the sinuses are connected with the nasal cavity through special mouths-passages. Therefore, if there is a runny nose and swelling of the nose, and headaches are added to this, then the doctor does not think about anything except for inflammation of the sinuses.
Sinusitis is a type of sinusitis. All over the world, by the way, antritis is called sinusitis, but in Russia and the CIS countries it is the name of sinus by the name of the sinuses (maxillary).
The tragedy of all sinusitis is the immediate proximity of inflammation to the brain and eyes. What can lead to meningitis, eye complications of various kinds.
The most common cause of sinusitis is rhinogenic, when the disease begins with a lesion of the nasal mucosa by viruses, which is then transformed into so-called acute sinusitis. Runny nose -‒ the first cause of sinusitis.
There is a hematogenous route of infection in the maxillary sinuses. That is, when from somewhere in the parts of our body distant from the nose, the infection with the bloodstream enters the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses.
We must not forget about monotonous antritis. The source of the disease is the tooth, which can be located in a special way in the maxillary sinus, and when it is inflamed, monochromatic antritis is obtained (in the old manner, “dental antritis”). Most often, monotonous sinusitis develops in children, during the change of milk teeth to permanent ones. In children with monotonous sinus symptoms are the same as in adults. Proper oral hygiene – this is one of the ways you can protect yourself from this type of sinusitis (even small caries is a threat here).
Symptoms of chronic sinusitis
If the doctor has diagnosed sinusitis, the symptoms in adults are as follows:
- Swelling of the nasal mucosa.
- A small amount of secretion in the nasal cavity.
- Headaches, as well as their localization mainly on the face.
- Loss of smell.
That is, a person may complain that a nose is stuffed up periodically, there are nasal discharge of a slimy character from the nose, and a headache periodically (very specific pains). At times, symptoms can worsen, and then become dull again, this only means that sluggish inflammation occurs in the sinuses, which worsens during any episodes of a cold or ARVI. During periods of calm disease, inflammation does not disappear anywhere, but only is hidden.
It all starts with a commonplace rhinitis. Discharge first goes watery, then becomes thick, and by a certain phase of rhinitis they can become purulent. The development of sinusitis can occur from days to 7 days. Usually, by the second or third day, people notice a heaviness in the projection of the face, a manifestation of pulsating pain in the region of the maxillary sinuses, pain can be given to the tooth, ear, temple. There may be swelling in the area of the sinuses. Maybe nasal. Sometimes there is a feeling of fluid transfusion inside the face when bending.
Since the main symptom of sinusitis – the loss of smell, then smell the strawberries and cucumber. If there is no difference, then most likely you have antritis.
You can also knock (easily) on the maxillary and frontal sinuses, if acute pain is observed, then this is a reason to consult a doctor.
All of the above – for self-initial diagnosis of sinusitis.
At the doctor’s appointment you will be taken an x-ray – this is a method for the rapid diagnosis of sinusitis. Today, X-ray diagnostics should be performed in 100% of cases. After all, only X-ray diagnostics will allow to suspect and recognize the pathology of the deeper sinuses.
There are patients who, for certain reasons, may refuse radiographs (pregnant women, etc.). For them, a fairly young diagnostic method is used – ultrasound using a sensor that can be installed in a specific area of the face. Ultrasound is used to diagnose only two types of sinusitis – sinusitis and sinusitis. The uzist will see the presence or absence of fluid in the sinuses.
Computed tomography can be used for diagnosis. For this method, inherent more precise detail.
Magnetic resonance imaging is also used to diagnose, especially popular with pregnant and lactating women.
When you need immediate help from a doctor
If the patient’s temperature rises above 39 ° C, the blood pressure drops to 90/60 mm.
Dangerous signs can also be attributed if the swelling from the nose began to spread to the entire face, and the pain syndrome became unbearable.
Sinusitis can be acute and chronic.
Chronic sinusitis – this category of patients is one of the many and difficult to treat. And the forms of chronic sinusitis quite a lot.
One of the most common forms of sinusitis is polypous sinusitis. When the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses begin to form polyps, which, expanding, begin to block the nasal cavity. The person begins to feel discomfort. Polyps can grow to such an extent that they block the passages of the nose, and the person simply stops breathing with the nose. This also includes the loss of smell.
Treatment of sinusitis
There are several treatment methods for sinusitis. Now everywhere the first thing they begin to treat with the stage of antibiotic therapy. The idea is that the inflammation causes a bacterial infection, and until this bacterium is destroyed, any manipulation will not bring the proper result.
But, unfortunately, antibiotics do not help everyone, and the best antibiotics work effectively only in 75-80% of patients. And in 20% of patients a course of antibiotics has no effect, and it is necessary to be treated by other methods.
In the West, if the first course of antibiotics did not help, then the second course is prescribed. If there is no effect, then appoint the third. And only if there is no effect after the third dose of antibiotics, the patient is sent to the operating room, where the passage between the sinus and the nose is opened surgically (endoscopic surgery is done).
In our country, the benefit to such excitement has not yet reached, and ENT-doctors have very many methods that allow local to improve the outflow from the sinuses and thereby prevent the development of serious complications.
It should be understood that the mouth, which connects the sinus and nose, with the swelling of the nose just closes. Pus from a sinus cannot leave itself. Antibiotics are prescribed with the expectation that they will fall into the sinuses, destroy microbes. But if antibiotics do not work, then pus must be evacuated from the sinus by any means. To do this, there is a simple way – a hole is punctured with a Kulikovsky needle from the side of the nose to the side of the sinus to allow outflow of pus. This is called a puncture.
It would, of course, be easier to solve the problem if a person had only one sinus infection. But the treachery of sinusitis is that all or several sinuses are inflamed.
There is also a method when you can give outflow of pus without a puncture. This method was developed
A special device, a catheter, is inserted into the nasal cavity. A special balloon is inflated in the posterior sections of the nasopharynx, thereby closing the nasopharynx. Then the second balloon in the nostril is inflated, and in fact the nose is closed outside and behind. In the catheter there is an additional channel to which the syringe joins. And very carefully the doctor begins to create negative pressure in the nose. Fluid in the sinuses begins to be replaced by air. That is, through natural channels, the liquid begins to exit into the nasal cavity, and then it evacuates into a syringe. At the same time, the patient experiences strange (non-painful) sensations, he has a headache, relief comes. This is the first part of the procedure.
And in the second part, an antibiotic is administered in the sinuses along with steroid drugs. The whole procedure is performed under local anesthesia.
The second modern method is carried out under the control of the camera and even without local anesthesia. The time for the procedure is given no more than 15 minutes.
A special device – a catheter – the doctor finds the entrance (mouth) in the maxillary sinus and enters there a thin guide, at the end of which there is a balloon (like a balloon). The balloon is inflated, expanding the entrance-hole in the paranasal sinus. The path of the inflammatory fluid is open. It will be deleted during the procedure. The cavity will be washed and treated with antibiotics. But now the fluid itself can calmly drain into the nasal cavity, and the patient will have no more problems. This technique is called balloon sinusoplasty.
After the procedure, it will be necessary for the prophylaxis to flush the nose with saline or an antibiotic twice a day to speed up the treatment. The patient will carry out the washing procedure independently. Within a short period of time, the body will take its own course, because the problem that caused sinusitis, the decrease in the outflow of inflammatory fluid from the sinuses, has been solved.
A nasal douche can clear mucus from the nasal cavity. It is important to observe the correct tilt of the head. Saline solutions, saline solution, sea water are used as washing liquid.
Can I warm my nose with sinusitis?
It is impossible (and in a categorical form). Under the influence of high temperature bacterial infection, which is located in the maxillary sinuses, can spread throughout the body. Therefore, with the heating of the sinuses during acute or chronic sinusitis is better not to experiment.
Conservative treatment is used quite often. Treatment with drugs – – the first thing that offers a doctor. Used for the treatment of antibiotics, vasoconstrictor drops, corticosteroids. If the sinusitis has a source of an allergic nature, then antihistamines will also be included in the treatment regimen.
Vasoconstrictive drops are prescribed. Swelling of the nasal mucosa goes away, and thus opens the exit from the sinuses. Liquid-pus comes out of the sinuses through the hole (that is, it will be enough just to blow it out).
Puncture of the maxillary sinus
Puncture of the maxillary sinus is done for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. When a puncture fluid from the maxillary sinuses is transported into the nasal cavity. Often, patients after a single puncture forget about sinus for a long time and do not return to otolaryngology doctors with inflammations of the maxillary sinuses. The opinion that, having made a puncture once, you will be attached to this procedure and the needle of Kulikovsky for the rest of your life, -‒ is just a myth. Puncture is not a factor that provokes chronic sinusitis.
Antibiotics for sinus
Antibiotic therapy in outpatient practice is assigned almost always, it is associated with the fear of getting complications. But the doctor always decides whether to prescribe antibiotics or not. If he sees that the sinusitis passes without aggravating circumstances, then antibiotic therapy may be omitted.
Food for sinus
When sinusitis need to pay attention to fluid intake in large quantities, and food must be correct and balanced. There are no special miracle products here, but given that the treatment will be carried out with antibiotics, then it is worthwhile to include sour-milk products in the diet — kefir, yogurt.
Treatment of sinusitis at home
Sinusitis is a complication that arose after a cold. At home, it was necessary to treat a runny nose, but if faced with sinusitis, the best solution would be to go to the otolaryngologist.
Treatment of sinusitis should occur under the guidance of an ENT doctor. So get rid of the disease quickly, and even more serious complications do not get.
How to treat sinusitis folk remedies
Traditional medicine offers many options for how to treat sinusitis:
For the procedure, you will need an ordinary bow. Half of the onion should be chopped and wrapped in a sterile bandage. Bintik with a bow to apply to one nostril, then to another.
It is necessary to wash the leaves Kalanchoe and chop. You can apply as well as onion lotion, or bury, Kalanchoe provokes sneezing, during which the nose and sinuses are cleaned.
Beet juice has an antibacterial effect, it is enough to bury it in the nose several times a day.
Juice from large leaves of aloe to bury 2 drops in each nostril. Aloe is known for its bactericidal properties.
Salt water wash
Take half a liter of boiled water and a teaspoon of sea salt, mix thoroughly so that the solution does not damage the mucous. Take any convenient vessel (bottle or teapot) and pour it into one nostril so that water flows freely from the other. Bend and turn your head to the side. Washing should be carried out up to 4 times a day.
What happens if you do not treat sinusitis
If you do not engage in the treatment of sinusitis, then it can face terrible complications, even intracranial, when a person already needs emergency surgery, when you need the intervention of a doctor neurosurgeon. Inflammation can go inside the brain.
There is no big difference in the treatment and prevention of sinusitis in adults and children. There are basic principles for the treatment of sinusitis:
- ensure adequate outflow so that the fluid from the sinuses has the opportunity to evacuate into the nasal cavity;
- provide an effect on the provoking factor (as a rule, this implies taking antibiotics).
With regard to prevention, then with a cold you need to begin to properly treat it. Use vasoconstrictor drugs to eliminate swelling.
If the patient is aware that he has polyps, a curvature of the nasal septum, or other nasal pathologies, then it is necessary to get rid of it. Since this is a direct threat of sinusitis in the future.
If you have bad teeth, then you need to treat them. This will avoid single-genic sinusitis.
Sinusitis requires increased attention. The background and signs of sinusitis in adults and children need to be taken into account. This is not a disease, which you can give up and say the phrase a pass. The body needs help to cope and necessarily under the supervision of an otolaryngologist.