Burn disease is a specific general reaction of the body to burn injuries of the skin and deep tissues. At the same time, involvement in the process of the peripheral and central nervous system is observed. In some cases, this syndrome leads to death.
Burns and their classification
Before considering the stages of burn syndrome, it is necessary to understand what constitutes a burn itself. This is a tissue damage that occurs when skin is exposed to high temperatures, radiation, or hazardous chemicals, including concentrated alkalis and acids. There are four main severity of burns:
- First-degree burn is the least dangerous for the human body. It affects only the upper layers of the skin and is characterized by the appearance on the surface of the skin redness and mild swelling;
- second degree burn – there is already a detachment of the upper layer of the skin (epidermis) and the formation of small bubbles with liquid;
- third degree burn – this form is characterized by damage not only to the epidermis, but also to the dermis. At the same time in the area of hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands small areas of healthy tissues remain. A severe burn of grade 3 is accompanied by the appearance of blisters with hemorrhagic fluid and consistent necrosis of the skin.
- A fourth degree burn is characterized by damage not only to the skin, but to the tissues that lie under it, including muscles and bones.
And if in the first two cases, conservative treatment is necessary, then deep burns require prompt restoration of the skin (transplant).
Burn disease: when does it occur?
The probability of the development of a similar reaction of the organism directly depends on the depth of the burns and the area of their spread. It is believed that if at least 10-15% of the surface of the human body has suffered from deep burns, then the body’s general reaction develops – a burn disease. The severity of such a syndrome depends on many factors, including the nature of the burns, the place of their localization (for example, a burn in the groin area causes the body to react even with slight damage), the patient’s age, the presence of other diseases.
Burn disease and the main stages of its development
The course of this syndrome can be divided into four main stages, each of which is characterized by certain symptoms and is accompanied by a number of changes.
- Burn shock. It is known that burns cause severe pain, which is collected from the entire damaged body surface and is transmitted to the nervous system. Such intense nerve impulses can cause a state of shock. First, the victim becomes extremely excitable, and then, on the contrary, too depressed. Body temperature rises sharply, and then for no apparent reason drops. Shock also affects other brain centers, including the circulatory and respiratory centers. The patient has a change in the composition of the blood, a drop in blood pressure, a violation of the kidneys.
- Second period. It is mainly associated with the release into the blood of toxic decomposition products of burned tissue. These toxins affect literally the entire body, making it difficult for the liver and kidneys to work. Next begins the inflammatory process in the lungs. The patient has a strong fever. This period is characterized by the development of post-burn anemia. The damaged surface festers and becomes a gate for penetration of secondary infections into a weakened organism.
- The third period occurs approximately 10 days after the burn injury. It is accompanied by severe inflammation and complications, including purulent nephritis, pneumonia, and diseases of other organs and tissues.
- The fourth period develops slowly and is the result of exhaustion. At this time, purulent complications arise, as well as malnutrition of tissues and organs, which leads to their slow atrophy.
It should be noted that the severity of a burn disease also depends on how quickly and correctly the patient was given medical assistance.