A symptom such as pain in the buttocks is not always a “trifle of life,” even if it arose after an injury to the buttocks or the introduction of medication into the muscle. The causes of this condition can be the coccygeal cyst, an abscess – both after an injection, and developed as a complication of hemorrhoids or injuries of the prostate gland. This problem can be caused by osteochondrosis and herniated intervertebral discs, and even malignant blood diseases.
The information below will help to locate the problem approximately, and if the pain appeared after the injection into the buttock, then the compaction that appeared inside it is still an infiltration or already an abscess that needs to be opened surgically. In addition, let us analyze how to diagnose a disease and provide first aid before going to the appropriate specialist.
How does the gluteal region
The buttock area in medical understanding has the following boundaries:
- bottom – fold under the buttock;
- above – the upper part of the bone forming the pelvis (in scientific terms this is called the iliac crest);
- outside: a line connecting the bone protrusion, located in front on the same ilium (this is called the anterior superior spine of this bone), and a protrusion on the femur;
- inside: a line connecting the centers of the sacral and coccygeal vertebrae.
Figuratively, the gluteal region can be compared with a puff pie – it consists of a large number of layers separated by thin layers of connective tissue:
- The surface layer is leather. She is fat, sedentary, but extremely sensitive to pain. It contains a lot of sweat and sebaceous glands, and in the inner part – hair follicles. This makes it possible for boils, lipomas and atheromas to form here.
- Under the skin – a well-developed layer of subcutaneous tissue. Its structure is cellular, due to bridges of connective tissue, extending from the skin to its own fascia. There are posterior sacral and lumbar nerves, branches of the upper and lower gluteal arteries. A thin connective tissue membrane divides the array of fat cells into the gluteal and lumbar region. Above one of the structures of the femur in the subcutaneous tissue there is a bag, similar to the articular – a subcutaneous trochanter bag. It is filled with the same fluid as the bag in which the joint is located. Need to reduce friction between muscles and tendons while walking.
- Own fascia gluteal region. This membrane of connective tissue starts from the sacrum (side) and pelvic bones (above), bends around the gluteus maximus and passes into the fascia of the thigh.
- The superficial muscle layer. The main and only component of his muscle is the gluteus maximus. It gives the gluteal region a bulge; drugs are introduced into its array with intramuscular injections. Its task: to bend and unbend the thigh, turn it to the outside, move the leg from the center and to the center. Using bundles of connective tissue, the muscle is divided into multiple bundles. It is completely surrounded by a case, which is a continuation of its own fascia of the gluteal region. Therefore, the infection carried on the needle, which was used for the injection, spreads from the surface of the muscle into the depths. When phlegmon develops here, the pus melts a deep piece of fascial sheath and transfers to the fiber located under the gluteus maximus muscle.
- Predyagodichnoe fiber space. It is extensive. In front of it lies the fascia covering the muscles of the middle layer, behind it is a deep sheet of the fascia gluteus maximus muscle, above the two above-fasciae, which are walls of the cellular tissue, are attached to the ileum. Inside these same two sheets of connective tissue are attached to the sacrum and tailbone
- The middle layer consists of several muscles:
- gluteus medius muscle. It forms the lateral line of the hips. Responsible for moving the leg to the side, turns the thigh in and out, stabilizes the legs when walking;
- pear-shaped muscle. Turns the thigh and leg outward, tilts the pelvis to the side, if the leg is fixed;
- twin muscles – upper and lower. They rotate the thigh out and in;
- obturator muscles – external and internal. The outer turns the thigh outward, the inner turns inward;
- square muscle turning the thigh outward.
Deep tissues feed from the iliopsoas, superior gluteal and lumbar arteries. The veins, providing outflow from there, go near the arteries, and have messages with an even deeper venous network. The lymph flows into the lymph nodes located in the groin; deep lymph nodes are located in the pelvic cavity.
Most of the muscles of the gluteal region innervates the sciatic nerve, the infringement of which is called sciatica. This nerve fiber is as thick as a person’s index finger, which extends through the middle layer of muscle, passes through the entire thigh and goes to the back of the foot. In the area of the popliteal fossa, the sciatic nerve is divided into 2 smaller branches – the fibular and tibial nerves, which reach the foot and innervate its muscles and joints.