Pain in the left lower abdominal segment in men can be caused by different reasons. Anatomically, the sigmoid and rectum are projected in this area. In addition, pain can cause inflammation of the prostate gland, spleen, renal colic.
Intestinal tract disease
Lower abdominal pain in men can be a sign of the following diseases:
- proctosigmoiditis (proctitis);
- intestinal obstruction;
- nonspecific ulcerative colitis;
- sigmoid polyps;
- sigmoid / rectal cancer.
Pain in the left side can cause a combined inflammation of the mucous membrane of the surface of the rectum and sigmoid colon. Signs of the disease are:
- pain in the lower abdomen to the left, extending into the perineal zone, the bladder area, buttocks and the front surface of the thigh
- frequent urge to defecate, accompanied by the release of a small amount of crumbly stool containing blood and mucous membranes;
- dyspeptic disorder – diarrhea (constipation accompanies the disease much less often).
Chronic sigmoiditis is characterized by secretion of mucus from the anus, which causes itching and irritation of the skin around the anus. The cause of the disease can be: infections of various origins, in particular, dysentery, typhoid fever, as well as syphilis and gonorrhea, constipation – parts of dried feces cause irritation of the intestinal walls, an allergic reaction.
Sigmoiditis is an inflammation of the sigmoid colon, occurring in acute and chronic form. Most often it is a combined lesion of the sigmoid and rectum. In this case, rectosigmoiditis is diagnosed. Sometimes the clinical picture of sigmoiditis can be traced with colitis – inflammation of the colon.
There are several varieties of sigmoiditis:
- Catarrhal Only the surface layer of the intestinal mucosa is involved in the inflammatory process. The condition is accompanied by the release of a small amount of mucus.
- Erosive. On the surface of the mucous erosive areas are formed, not affecting the deep layers of the mucous.
- Ulcerative. Deep ulcers appear on the mucosal surface.
- Perisigmoiditis. The inflammation spreads to the serous membrane, which causes the formation of infiltrates of various sizes around the intestine. The mesentery is involved in the pathological process. The formation of adhesions occurs.
Symptoms of sigmoiditis include the following: sharp cramping pain in the left abdomen, extending to the left leg and lumbar region, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, upset stool (diarrhea), combined with frequent false urges – fetid stool containing blood and mucus (reminds meat slop).
There is a discharge only a mixture of mucus and blood without particles of fecal masses, intoxication of the body – headache, weakness, weakness, fever. Treatment of the disease is conservative. The patient is prescribed a therapeutic diet, as well as taking antibiotics and probiotics to restore the intestinal microflora.
Soreness on the left side of the lower abdomen may be a symptom of sigmoid diverticulitis. The disease is accompanied by the development of pathological protrusions in the walls of the intestine, and is one of the most frequently diagnosed pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
The causes of diverticulum formation are: changes in the intestinal walls of a dystrophic nature, disturbances of intestinal motility, causing stagnation of fecal masses in the lumen of the sigmoid colon, vascular pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. Most often, these factors work combined.
The period of exacerbation of diverticulitis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- sharp / cramping, sometimes aching pain from the bottom of the abdomen;
- frequent constipation;
- heaviness in the abdomen, decreasing after an act of defecation;
- nausea, ending with vomiting;
- the presence of blood impurities in the stool;
- general malaise.
Treatment of the disease is complex and includes several points:
- Reception of medicines. Men are prescribed drugs from the category of antibacterial drugs, antispasmodics, laxatives, prokinetics and enzymes.
- Compliance with therapeutic diets.
Sometimes it hurts the left side of the lower abdomen in a man because of intestinal obstruction. This pathological condition arises as a result of the presence of mechanical / functional causes that prevent the passage of food and fluid through the colon.
The main signs of obstruction of the colon include: spastic pain, localized left lower abdomen, nausea, ending with vomiting, severe asymmetric abdominal distension, constipation, delayed discharge of gas.
The characteristic clinical picture develops against the background of complete well-being. The first symptom is severe pain in the left lower abdomen.
Initially, it is determined in a particular place, and then, as the state deteriorates, it becomes diffuse.
The patient feels strong contractions of the intestines, accompanied by active seething. As the pathology progresses, the condition of a person greatly deteriorates: the patient turns pale, he suffers significant sweating.
Failure to adequately treat a condition can pose a threat to a person’s life. Against the background of obstruction, necrosis of the affected intestine, caused by impaired local blood circulation, is not excluded. In the future, intestinal perforation and the development of peritonitis.
Nonspecific ulcerative colitis
Nonspecific ulcerative colitis is a diffuse ulcerative inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon. The origin of the disease has an unclear etiology. The reasons for its development may be:
- viruses and bacteria;
- disorders of the autoimmune nature.
For nonspecific ulcerative colitis is characterized by a wavy course: stable remission is replaced by exacerbations.
Symptoms of pathology in the acute period are:
- bleeding from the anal orifice;
- painful tenesmus;
- pulling pains in the abdomen;
- frequent diarrhea;
- fecal masses contain blood impurities.
Non-specific ulcerative colitis is characterized by weight loss, which is explained by a decrease in appetite, impaired food assimilation, and frequent loose stools. A particular danger to humans is the fulminant form of pathology, which develops at lightning speed. Its hardest complications are perforation of the intestinal walls and its toxic increase.
Since the causes of the development of pathology to physicians are not fully known, therapy reduces to reducing inflammation, reducing pathological symptoms and preventing exacerbation. Treatment involves the use of therapeutic and surgical techniques. The important point is the observance of therapeutic diets.
The cause of pain can become polyps growing from the tissues of the glandular epithelium and directed inside the lumen of the intestine. They may look like mushroom-shaped, uviform or spherical formations attached to the mucosal surface with the help of a leg. Initially, they are benign, but have a tendency to rebirth.
The following types of polyps are distinguished:
- Hyperplastic. The most frequently diagnosed neoplasms resembling flat round plaques. Transition to cancer is quite rare.
- Adenomatous. Prone to rebirth and belong to precancerous conditions. At the very beginning of development they do not declare anything about themselves. As they grow, they can cause intestinal obstruction and frequent bleeding.
- Diffuse. The reasons for their formation are hereditary diseases.
The causes of the formation of polyps are: chronic gastrointestinal pathology – diverticulitis, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, intestinal dysbiosis, genetic predisposition, insufficient exercise, low fiber content in the food consumed.
Symptoms of sigmoid polyps become (clinical symptoms manifest late and only after the size of the polyp exceeds 3 cm):
- when trying to sit down or make any sudden movement, the patient experiences a sharp pain in the lower left abdominal segment;
- the presence of fresh blood in the fecal mass, which is explained by injury to villous polyps;
- a large amount of mucus in the fecal masses indicates the presence of glandular polypous formations;
- alternating constipation and diarrhea;
- false urge to defecate;
- abdominal distention caused by increased flatulence;
- frequent heartburn and belching.
The causes of pain may be the pathology of the spleen. Abdominal pain on the left can be accompanied by: pathological expansion of the organ, spleen infarction, abscess, volvulus, myeloid and lymphatic leukemia.
The organ is located in the left hypochondrium, but as a result of the pathological expansion of pain, it occurs along the lower abdomen (its left side). The causes of inflammation may be the inflammatory process, worsening of blood circulation in the organ.
Signs of pathology are:
- painful bowel cramps felt down to the left;
- bouts of nausea ending in vomiting;
- increase in total body temperature.
Heart attack spleen
A heart attack is caused by the overlap of the lumen of the artery that feeds the spleen. When this occurs, the death of part of the body. Signs of a heart attack occurring are: sharp pain, descending from the left hypochondrium down the abdomen, increased pain during a deep breath, movement, cough, fever to high levels.
Severe pain is accompanied by the formation of ulcers. Symptoms of the condition are as follows: spastic pain in the left hypochondrium, extending to the left side of the chest and lower abdomen, increasing weakness, fever, nausea, ending with vomiting.
Inversion of the spleen
The cause of the condition is the twisting of the artery supplying the spleen with blood. The defect can be caused by injury of the mesentery ligaments or their congenital pathology. Symptoms of pathology can be: bloating, constipation, pain, descending from the left hypochondrium down to the abdomen, vomiting, gradual deterioration.
Myeloid and lymphocytic leukemia
Soreness develops after eating and pressing on the projection area of the spleen. As the condition worsens, the pain will only increase.