The shoulder joint is one of the most unique joints of the human body in structure and functional ability. Uncharacteristic or excessive exercise on the shoulder joint can lead to local inflammatory processes. The result of the inflammatory process, in turn, may be local edema, articular effusion, and even partial ruptures of the tendons that surround the shoulder joint.
In addition, the shoulder joint has one feature common with conventional mechanisms – it can withstand improper handling only up to a certain point, it has its own limit of strength, then a violation of its functions, which turn into pain, can occur.
According to the mechanism of occurrence, pain in the shoulder can be divided as follows.
Pain localized in the upper part of the shoulder may come from the neck. At the same time, it spreads over the entire arm, aggravated by the movement of the neck, sometimes accompanied by numbness or parasthesia. Studies of the spine (cervical or thoracic) most often show the presence of intervertebral hernia. Damage to the intervertebral discs leads to the loss of their elasticity, they flatten, the distance between the vertebrae decreases. As a result, the nerve roots that extend from the spinal cord are squeezed, causing the onset of pain. When this occurs, swelling in the area of the clamp, leading to even greater infringement and increased pain.
Capsule is a state of painful stiffness of the muscles located in the shoulder girdle. It is rare, it develops gradually, sometimes imperceptibly for the patient. There is a limitation in the ability to pull the arm to the side when lifting it up, as well as the inability to have a sore arm behind the back. In severe cases, the ability of the affected hand to hold the spoon to the mouth is lost.
The defeat of the rotating cuff of the shoulder may occur when making non-standard movements in the hand (for example, when painting the ceiling). On the day when the work was done, there are usually no complaints. But the next day there is a sharp pain if you try to remove something from the top shelf. During the examination, it is necessary to determine the degree of tension of the muscles of the shoulder girdle and the ability to perform movements in the shoulder joint. Radiographs of the joint usually show no changes.
Tendobursitis is a reactive inflammation of the bags of the shoulder joint, which is caused by the calcifications of the muscle tendons. It is characterized by pain, acutely arising in the shoulder and a significant limitation of active and passive movements in it. Also usually accompanied by severe pain in the shoulder girdle, arm, neck.
Causes of shoulder pain
The most common causes of shoulder pain can be the following:
- Tendonitis – inflammation of the tendons that surround the shoulder joint. They are the result of excessive stress, in which tendon rubbing of bone occurs, causing irritation and pain.
- Tendinitis of the biceps (the muscles on the inside of the shoulder, going from the shoulder to the elbow area) – is characterized by chronic pain, increasing with movement and with palpation. If there is a complete rupture of the biceps tendon, a bulge appears in the affected area.
- Bursitis is a disease usually paired with tendinitis. Pain in the shoulder, as with tendinitis, is associated with an overload, but edema in the area of the articular sac (surrounding the joint of the soft sac) joins them.
- The collision syndrome is the deposition of calcium salts, which causes the ligaments of the joint to decay. Typically, such salt deposits can occur in the tendon extending under the scapula and collarbone. Most often found at the age of 30-50 years. Characterized by the sudden onset of intense and constant pain during the abstraction of the shoulder from the body at 30-90 degrees. Can be detected by x-ray before the appearance of pain.
- Traumatic injuries – in the event of a fall, the humerus is displaced when the upper part of the arm “flies” out of the deepening of the joint. Occasionally, an injury also causes a rupture of the tendons of the muscles that ensure rotation of the arm. Damage to such a plan, left untreated, lead to persistent dysfunction of the shoulder.
- Recurrent shoulder dislocation – in addition to accidents, occurs in athletes or young people. It leads to a periodic loss of the shoulder from the joint without even a traumatic impact, with minor loads. In adults, there are injuries to the structures of the shoulder joint due to aging, tissue wear or developed osteoporosis (calcium metabolism disorders in the bones).
- Tumors and hereditary anatomical abnormalities are not very common, but can also cause pain in the shoulder joint.
- Shoulder injury during bodybuilding is a common problem when practicing this sport, along with pain in the elbows, knees, lower back. Leads to the impossibility of performing a number of exercises of the training program. The main cause of this injury is the instability of the shoulder joint, which occurs when stretching the shoulder ligaments, stress in the articular bag of the shoulder joint and the excessive work of its muscles, tearing of the cartilage ring.
- Diseases of internal organs – the pain can spread to the shoulder in case of pathology of the liver, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, tumors of the chest organs, cervical radiculitis.
- Chubal periarthrosis – often the pain begins gradually, not having a clear provocative factor. But, having a progressive character, does not allow to perform everyday affairs, it disturbs the patient at night. Movement in the shoulder joint is painful in different directions. The pain in the shoulder is added to the pain in the forearm and hand; it may be of a different nature: aching, shooting through, burning and
Knowing what movements arise shoulder pain, You can determine which tendons were affected by the disease:
- pain when moving the arm to the side and moving it forward – changes in the supraspinal tendon,
- rotational pain out of the upper arm, elbow joint pressed to the body – changes in the infraspinal tendon,
- rotational pain inside the upper arm, elbow joint pressed to the body – changes in the subscapularis tendon,
- pain in front of the shoulder while turning the forearm inward with resistance is most often an indication of the disease of the biceps.
Considering that there are many reasons for pain in the shoulder, and self-treatment or lack of treatment can lead to an exacerbation of the disease or its transition to a chronic stage, it is imperative to consult a doctor. This may be a traumatologist, orthopedist or sports doctor.