Microangiopathy occurs as a complication of a particular pathology of the brain. It has its own varieties. This disease is characterized by damage to the capillaries, small vessels that are responsible for the metabolic process.
It is impossible to diagnose this deviation on your own, therefore, when the first symptoms appear, you should immediately contact a specialist and undergo a thorough examination. Properly chosen treatment will help avoid complications.
Steps for the development of the pathological process
Microangiopathy of the brain is considered a fairly common pathology, which is characterized by impaired tone, the structure of the walls of blood vessels and capillaries directly in this organ. As a result, the patient has an impaired metabolic process in the brain tissue.
The more the disease progresses, the less the elasticity of the vascular wall becomes, the thickening and reduction of the vascular lumen occurs. This can lead to obstruction of small vessels for intensive blood flow. As a result, brain neurons suffer from a lack of blood flow, oxygen and glucose.
After the vessels become less durable, they begin to break, which can provoke subarachnoid hemorrhage. If there is no blood flow, then neurons die off locally, foci are replaced by gliosis, and scarring occurs.
Causes and provoking diseases
Brain microangiopathy syndrome can develop against the background of other pathologies. Violation occurs as a result of such diseases and conditions of the human body:
- Thrombosis. Blood flow is impaired due to the formation of clots.
- Necrosis. Dying off of cells and tissues.
- Hyalinosis. Hyaline is deposited.
- Fibrinoid swelling. The permeability of the blood vessels becomes increased and, as a result, the destruction of connective tissue is observed.
It can also provoke microangiopathy of the brain:
- anomaly of the vascular wall structure;
- tobacco smoking;
- alcohol consumption;
- poor blood clotting;
- infectious diseases that adversely affect the state of the vessels;
- endocrine diseases;
- high blood pressure;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- toxic substances;
- advanced age.
Do not brain one
In modern medicine, there are several types of microangiopathy:
- Cerebral microangiopathy. Pathological process is observed directly in the brain. It is characterized by a long-term violation of cerebral blood flow, which occurs against the background of atherosclerosis or high blood pressure. Symptoms of encephalopathy, ischemia and lacunar infarction, which cause damage to the gray matter. Symptoms of the disease occur at later stages, helping to distinguish it from other brain disorders.
- Diabetic. Occurs due to persistent elevated glucose levels. As a result, there is a lesion of small vessels that provide blood flow to the internal organs There are several clinical forms of this type of pathology.
- Foot lesion. The patient has a lesion of the capillaries of the lower extremities. It is characterized by slow blood flow, disturbed nutrition of tissues, damage to certain parts of the legs. If the immunity is reduced, then the pathology begins to progress.
- Microangiopathy the liver. The patient has changes in the vascular wall, impaired blood clotting and slow blood flow. As a result, blood clots form, blood viscosity increases, and platelets are activated.
Cerebral microangiopathy at an initial stage is asymptomatic, therefore its diagnosis is complicated. This pathological process can manifest a number of symptoms:
- memory impairment;
- consciousness becomes muddy;
- unreasonable weakness of the body;
- frequent and intense headaches.
These disorders occur due to poor blood flow in the capillaries of the brain. The development of symptoms occurs gradually. First, there is an unreasonable weakness, which may be accompanied by a headache.
In this situation, painkillers do not have a positive effect. Then gradually the patient begins to torment insomnia at night, and during the daytime – drowsiness.
After the disease begins to progress, the patient has absent-mindedness, forgetfulness and inattention. The thinking process is disturbed. In parallel, focal signs of brain microangiopathy are observed:
- wobbly gait;
- convergence disorder;
- pupil diameter is completely different;
- other pathological reflexes.
Diagnostics and medical assistance
An MRI is performed during the diagnosis, which helps to examine the brain tissue and its vascular grid. If the patient develops this pathology, then signs of arterial hypoplasia are clearly visible. Infarction foci are also seen.
Be sure the patient is recommended to undergo Doppler ultrasound. Parallel blood test is done.
Treatment of brain microangiopathy is carried out in a complex.
- mandatory patient assigned drugs that normalize blood pressure;
- to eliminate the lack of oxygen in the brain tissue must be taken antihypoxants;
- to reduce lipid levels you need to take statins, sequestrants;
- to improve the nutrition of the brain use nootropics, and drugs based on nicotinic acid, improve blood flow.
It is necessary to take into account the fact that timely treatment helps to stop the development of the disease. This is important in old age, as in this case the pathological process is accelerated.
Details about the treatment of vascular diseases of the brain:
Consequences and Prevention
The prognosis for this diagnosis will largely depend on the age group of the patient, the extent of the lesion, concomitant diseases and the timeliness of therapy. If you ignore the development of the disease, it may develop cerebral insufficiency, which will lead to death.
The health of the whole organism depends on the state of the vessels. Even if there are minor changes or disorders, there will be pathologies that may be incurable. Therefore, it is worth paying attention not only to the correctly chosen treatment, but also prophylactically to measures, which include:
- healthy lifestyle;
- proper and balanced diet, it is desirable to stick to a salt-free diet;
- exclusion of stressful situations and intense physical exertion;
- rejection of bad habits;
- properly built mode of work and rest.
The above measures are simple, and if you follow them, you can avoid many problems with blood vessels.
It is worth remembering that cerebral microangiopathy of the brain is a serious disease that needs to be treated right away. The sooner the therapy is prescribed, the more likely it is to avoid complications.