Signs of pancreatic diseases
The pancreas is an organ that performs a number of important functions in the human body. It produces enzymes that are part of the digestive juice and are involved in the digestive processes, as well as hormones. In various diseases of the pancreas, digestion of food, splitting and absorption of substances necessary for the body are disturbed, which is accompanied by certain symptoms, many of which are not specific, especially in the early stages of the disease. On the basis of complaints, the doctor may suspect the patient of the pathology of this organ, but in order to clarify the diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo examination.
A frequent, mushy, fatty stool is a sign of pancreatic pathology.
The main symptoms that may indicate pancreatic pathology are pain and dyspeptic (indigestion).
The pain is usually localized in the epigastric region, may radiate to the left hypochondrium, left scapula, lower back, and during the acute process, the pain syndrome takes on a surrounding character. The pain appears or increases after a heavy meal, especially fat, spicy or fried, alcohol. Local cold helps to relieve pain, sometimes patients take a forced position to reduce unpleasant sensations (lying on their side with their knees pulled to the stomach or sitting up, bent forward).
Digestive disorders are manifested in the form of heaviness in the abdomen, nausea and vomiting that occur after a meal, patients may also experience bloating, flatulence, diarrhea. Sometimes patients themselves pay attention to the fact that the stool has become mushy, frequent (up to 4-5 times a day), fat, poorly washed off, becomes gray.
With the progression of the disease, metabolic processes are disturbed, patients lose weight, their appetite worsens. Because of vitamin deficiency, the skin of patients becomes dry, vision may be impaired, anemia and other conditions associated with hypovitaminosis develop.
The symptoms described above can occur with acute and chronic pancreatitis, tumors of the pancreas, the formation of cysts or stones of considerable size in it. However, similar signs may indicate diseases of the intestine, gallbladder and other organs of the digestive system. And in some cases, due to the irradiation of pain in the lumbar region, lower abdomen or scapula, the doctor may take the acute pathology of the pancreas for sciatica, an attack of angina or acute appendicitis. That is why the verification of the diagnosis requires examination.
Nor should we forget about the intrasecretory function of the pancreas, in violation of which the production of hormones that are directly involved in carbohydrate metabolism suffers. In case of violation of the production of insulin and other hormones by this body, the patient will show signs of diabetes. The early symptoms of this disease include polyuria (daily diuresis can exceed 2-3 liters), constant thirst, dry mouth, dry skin and mucous membranes, increased appetite.
With the progression of the disease, such complications of the disease as angiopathy, nephropathy, visual impairment, etc. may develop.
Symptoms of Pancreatitis
Acute pancreatitis most often develops with the abuse of alcohol and its surrogates, especially against the background of abundant intake of fatty foods, with injuries to the body. In healthy people, the acute form of the disease is rare, most often an exacerbation of the chronic inflammatory process in the gland occurs. The main symptom of acute pancreatitis is unbearable encircling pain in the hypochondria, accompanied by repeated vomiting and fever. In such cases, patients need urgent medical care in the hospital.
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In chronic pancreatitis, the symptoms of the disease may be absent for a long time or be so weak that people do not pay attention to them. In this case, there is a gradual process of replacing healthy cells of an organ with connective tissue, as a result of which the pancreatic function deficiency develops. Patients begin to be disturbed by aching dull pain, a feeling of bursting, heaviness in the left hypochondrium, which occurs or increases after eating or drinking, sometimes even in small quantities.
The disease can occur with alternating periods of exacerbation and remission, during exacerbation, symptoms characteristic of acute pancreatitis occur. There are also dyspeptic disorders. Often in patients with chronic pancreatitis, glucose tolerance is impaired.
Symptoms of cancer of the pancreas
Unfortunately, in recent decades, the number of patients suffering from oncological pathologies of this organ has increased. Tumors can develop from pancreatic cells responsible for its exocrine (enzymatic) function, and can also be hormonally active, developing from special cells.
The symptoms of pancreatic cancer most often resemble signs of pancreatitis, but depending on the location of the tumor, there may be other manifestations. In cancer of the head of the pancreas, a tumor grows, overwhelming the common bile duct, with the result that jaundice is one of the first signs of disease in patients. If a tumor occurs in the body or tail of the body, symptoms of rapidly progressing diabetes can come to the fore.
Pancreatic Cysts and Stones
A pancreatic cyst is a capsule in which the accumulation of fluid is determined. Cysts can be localized in any part of the organ, symptoms usually appear when they reach large sizes, begin to displace or squeeze nearby organs. Patients may experience pain in the upper abdomen, digestive disorders, weight loss. These symptoms are completely non-specific, and examination is required to determine their cause. Treatment in most cases is carried out surgically.
The formation of stones in the pancreas occurs rarely, this pathology can develop independently as a result of the deposition of salts in the tissues of the organ, or as a result of transferred or related diseases of the pancreas (although the reasons for the formation of stones in this organ are not completely clear today). Most often, the stones are found in the head of the organ, in most cases they are an accidental find during the study of internal organs for another reason.
Symptoms of the presence of stones in the parenchyma of the pancreas can be pain in the upper abdomen, radiating to the back, sometimes it is paroxysmal in nature, aggravated some time after eating. A stone may move to the common bile duct, resulting in signs of obstructive jaundice. Surgical treatment is used in case of severe disease, accompanied by frequent painful attacks and digestive disorders.
Diagnosis of pancreatic diseases
If signs characteristic of pancreatic diseases appear, it is necessary to consult a general practitioner or a gastroenterologist, who may, if necessary, refer them to other specialists (endocrinologist, surgeon, etc.).
After examining and installing a preliminary diagnosis, the doctor will refer the patient to a laboratory and instrumental examination. To confirm the diagnosis, urinalysis, blood tests (clinical and biochemical) are necessary, and indirectly, the presence of pancreatic diseases can be indicated by deviations in the results of fecal tests. One of the most informative methods for diagnosing the pathologies of this organ is ultrasound, during which the doctor can determine the size of the organ, assess the state of the parenchyma, and detect cysts, stones or tumors in it. The doctor may suspect pancreatitis according to the results of X-ray examinations of the abdominal organs and FGDS.
In difficult cases, for the diagnosis of diseases of the pancreas, a patient may be recommended computed and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as organ tissue biopsy.
Engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment for suspected pathology of the pancreas should not be. The same symptoms may indicate both pancreatitis and the presence of an organ tumor, and the earlier the diagnosis is made and the correct treatment is prescribed, the better the prognosis of the disease. In advanced cases, as a result of chronic pancreatitis, severe diseases of the digestive system, kidneys, and heart may develop. Acute pathologies in the absence of treatment can lead to necrosis of pancreatic tissue and death.
Which doctor to contact
If abdominal pain, digestive disorders, should be addressed to the therapist. The doctor will conduct an initial examination and establish the diagnosis, prescribe treatment. If necessary, the patient is observed at the gastroenterologist. With the defeat of the pancreas, it may be necessary to examine the oncologist, endocrinologist, surgeon. It will be useful to visit a nutritionist.
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How do pancreatic diseases manifest themselves?
The symptoms of pancreatic diseases are in most cases very similar, however, to make a correct diagnosis, appropriate research is necessary.
The pancreas belongs to the human digestive system and is located in the upper abdomen behind the stomach. In the body, this body takes on a double burden, producing the enzymes necessary for the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, as well as synthesizing hormones such as insulin and glycogen. That is why any diseases of the pancreas extremely negatively affect the functioning of almost all organs and systems. In the structure of the pancreas secrete glandular tissue responsible for the performance of the exocrine function, and the islets of Langerhans, synthesizing glycogen and insulin.
Most often, this vital organ suffers from destructive and inflammatory processes. In order to timely detect the pathology and begin an adequate treatment, it is necessary to be able to distinguish between the signs of pancreatic disease.
Many pathologies affecting the pancreas have similar symptoms. In general, destruction and inflammation of the gland have signs of such a common disease as acute pancreatitis, which develops as a result of the disruption of the normal outflow of secretions. Differentiate a particular disease can only be a doctor after carrying out appropriate laboratory and instrumental studies.
In addition to acute and chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, tumor tumors, lipomatosis, fibrosis and
- pain in the epigastrium;
- mushy, abundant stools, and greasy stools;
- colic and bloating;
- weight loss and
When conducting a detailed examination revealed and characteristic changes in laboratory tests.
Virtually any disease of the pancreas in varying degrees, manifested by pain, the nature and location of which is always determined by a specific type of pathology. So, with inflammation of the body (acute pancreatitis), the pain can be both dull and cutting. In this case, the nature of the pain is caused by the extent and type of damage (tissue necrosis, swelling and
With the formation of edema, pain occurs due to stretching of the capsule of the affected organ and squeezing of the nerve fibers. Localization of pain also depends on the location of the lesion, which can affect all parts of the pancreas: the head, body or tail. In most cases, this pain appears in the absence of any connection with meals, it persists for a long time, becoming more intense as the disease progresses and spreads. In chronic pancreatitis, pain is only worried during periods of exacerbations. The most severe pain occurs with pancreatic necrosis, and there is a risk of the patient dying from a painful shock.
Inflammation of the pancreas often occurs on the background of alcohol intake, and alcoholization may not necessarily be prolonged. There are cases when the destruction of the organ occurred after a single dose of a large dose of alcohol, while people with chronic alcoholism can live for years without signs of inflammation in the pancreas.
Morbidity is also seen as the main manifestation of pancreatic cancer, and it can be permanent or episodic. Cystic fibrosis is usually accompanied by cramping pains, and dull, non-permanent pain arises during the formation of cysts.
Manifestations of most pathologies of the pancreas include a number of dyspeptic symptoms: nausea and vomiting, dehydration, and abnormal stool. Most often, the occurrence of dyspepsia in the initial stages of development of pathological conditions is caused by certain errors in the patient’s diet or taking certain medications.
If we talk specifically about pancreatitis, the disease manifests itself in almost a full range of dyspeptic symptoms. Due to irritation of the vagus nerve, nausea appears with subsequent vomiting with admixture of bile, which does not bring any relief. Since excessive vomiting causes significant fluid loss, dehydration occurs.
Dehydration can be of varying degrees of severity. The first degree is characterized by a loss of up to 3% of body weight and moderate thirst. With dehydration of the second degree, the patient can already lose up to 9% of the weight, suffer from a rather pronounced thirst, which is also accompanied by dry mucous membranes. There are irregularities on the part of the circulatory system – the pulse and heartbeat increase. Urination becomes rare and scarce. The third, the most severe degree of dehydration, leads to a significant loss of body weight and a deterioration in general well-being. Patients become weak and drowsy, skin and mucous membranes are very dry, heart palpitations. Often there is confusion and speech disorders.
Due to dehydration and stool disorders, the patient’s body begins to experience an acute shortage of nutrients, minerals and vitamins. This leads to the development of symptomatic diseases: stomatitis, glossitis and others.
As for violations of the chair, then for many diseases of the pancreas is characterized by a change in constipation diarrhea, flatulence, bloating. Also, when eating fatty foods, the stool can become frequent and greasy. This is especially true for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. The latter pathology is also manifested by impaired appetite, weight loss, profuse diarrhea in the later stages. Abundant loose stools are also characteristic of cystic fibrosis. In diabetes mellitus of the first type, on the contrary, patients feel an acute sense of hunger and general weakness. Bleached stools are a sign of a cyst of the body or pancreatic head.
Among the symptoms of diseases of the pancreas may be changes in the skin. For example, with pancreatitis, most patients experience yellowing or blanching of the skin, which is associated with squeezing of the bile duct due to swelling of the organ itself. When respiratory disorders and intoxication may appear cyanosis in the nasolabial triangle and on the fingers of the limbs. When circulatory disorders characteristic blue spots appear on the abdomen. According to medical statistics, jaundice is observed in about 30% of patients with acute pancreatitis.
Specific and specific symptoms
There are special symptoms and syndromes that can be identified by a specialist when palpating the anterior abdominal wall.
These features include.
- Symptom Dudkevich – painful sensations during palpation, when a specialist feels the patient’s abdomen just below the navel inward and upward along the oblique.
- Mayo-Robson’s symptom is pain when feeling the costal-vertebral angle located on the left side.
- The symptom of Shchetkin-Blumberg – increased pain during a sharp withdrawal of the hand during palpation. This feature often signals the onset of peritonitis due to destruction of the pancreas and irritation of the peritoneum by its enzymes.
- Chukhriyenko’s symptom is pain appearing when jerky movements by the edge of the palm in the region of the epigastrium.
The specific features of various pathologies of the pancreas experts identify the following:
- chronic pancreatitis – exacerbations occur as a reaction to the intake of fatty foods, sweet or alcohol;
- cystic fibrosis – weakness in the muscles, dryness in the mouth, deposits of salt crystals;
- diabetes mellitus of the first type – abundant urination against the background of constant thirst, itching of the mucous membranes and skin, manifestations of hypoglycemia (increased appetite, increased sweating, fainting and
Changes in laboratory tests
To make an accurate diagnosis in case of suspicion of a particular pathology of the pancreas, a series of laboratory tests are necessary. The first is a clinical study of blood, in which, with inflammatory and destructive, changes in leukocytes and red blood cells will be seen. The shift of the leukocyte formula to the left is the main sign of the addition of purulent infection.
Due to dehydration in patients, an increase in hematocrit (the ratio of erythrocytes and plasma volume) is also detected, and the number of erythrocytes also increases. In hemorrhagic pancreatitis in hereditary stage, hemoglobin may decrease due to anemia, and the level of glucose, on the contrary, will exceed the norm.
The level of amylase is determined by conducting biochemical blood tests. In the first hours of the disease, its rate exceeds 125 U / l; with necrotic changes, the level of amylase decreases. With a number of diseases may vary the level of other enzymes. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood sugar levels.
In a laboratory study of urine, it is also possible to detect changes characteristic of diseases of the pancreas. Firstly, its density increases, and secondly, protein, as well as white blood cells and red blood cells can be detected. The violation of protein and carbohydrate metabolism is indicated by an increase in the level of sugar and ketone bodies.
Radiation studies (ultrasound) are usually assigned to confirm the diagnosis, allowing to identify additional signs of pathology and accurately determine its nature.
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How to find out that the problem is in the pancreas
The pancreas is an indispensable and unique organ. Her diseases can not only greatly deteriorate the quality of life, not allowing a person to obtain the necessary substances from food, but also become life-threatening – gland enzymes are able to digest any of their own tissue. The symptoms of pancreatic diseases need to be known to everyone, so that in time, having suspected him in oneself or in a child, to seek medical help.
Abdominal pain is the main symptom of organ pathology
Initial symptoms of pathologies
The fact that the disease has developed is indicated by the first signs of pancreatic disease:
- pain in the upper abdomen;
- deterioration of health: weakness, lack of appetite;
- violation of the chair – mainly by the type of diarrhea.
Most often, these symptoms appear after eating fatty, smoked or spicy foods, which were washed down with alcohol.
A warning! Increased to high numbers, the temperature is not a symptom of a sick pancreas, as well as mucus, greens or blood in the feces. Perhaps a combination of pancreatitis with colitis, when they will be observed and the temperature and pain in the abdomen, but this is quite rare.
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Pain in case of pancreatic disease appears only during an acute process or exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. They can be described as:
- very intense;
- localized in the area under the ribs to the left or “under the spoon”, but more often it covers as if with a belt;
- give back, waist, left scapula, at least – with the heart area or the left collarbone;
- do not disappear and are not relieved after a bowel movement or vomiting;
- at the same time, the stomach can be felt, at first it is not tense yet.
Late signs of pancreatic pathologies
Symptoms of acute pancreatitis
The disease can occur both in the form of a less dangerous edema of the gland, and in the form of pancreatic necrosis – the death of a larger or smaller part of the organ, which is accompanied by the release of enzymes into the tissue and their “self-digestion”.
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Edema of the pancreas is manifested by such symptoms:
- Severe pain (its characteristics are described above) in the abdomen, which causes a person to take a sitting position, bent over.
- Repeated vomiting, after which it does not get easier. Vomit can have a sour, bitter character, can be painted yellow or contain streaks of blood.
- Diarrhea up to 10 times a day with feces that are light and even gray in color, which causes dehydration.
- Rapid pulse.
- There may be a rise in temperature.
- Despite the above signs of a diseased pancreas, the stomach remains soft for a while, and can be felt. Then he becomes tense as a board.
- Blue spots on the skin in the umbilical region (usually on the right), bluish coloration of the side surfaces of the abdomen.
Abdominal pain and diarrhea – symptoms of acute inflammation of the pancreas
With pancreatic necrosis, the above signs of pancreatic disease are much more pronounced:
- indomitable vomiting;
- due to intense pain, a painful shock can develop: a decrease in blood pressure, an increase in pulse rate, confusion, a cooling of the extremities;
- due to pronounced loss of fluid with vomiting or diarrhea and the impossibility of its normal replenishment (fluid intake causes an attack of vomiting) hypovolemic shock develops. This is manifested by a decrease or complete cessation of urination, pallor, dry and cool skin, dry mucous membranes, a decrease in pressure, impaired consciousness;
- tense abdomen (especially in the under the spoon).
Signs of chronic inflammation
Exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis is associated with an increase in the enzymatic activity of the gland; such a disruption of the pancreas is manifested by the same symptoms as the gland edema: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, violation of the general condition.
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Due to frequent exacerbations of normal, enzyme-producing tissue remains less, it is replaced by scars and filled with fluid, forming cysts. Pancreatic insufficiency is formed, and the symptoms of this condition are as follows:
- Loose stools:
- with an unpleasant smell;
- badly washed off, leaving traces;
- repeated 4-5 times a day.
- Heaviness in the stomach, swelling, especially after errors in the diet.
- Weight loss
- Decreased appetite.
- Dry skin, despite drinking water.
- Blurred vision
- Decreased blood clotting.
- Pale skin and mucous membranes.
- Thirst, large amounts of urine, night urination, fungal diseases, poor wound healing are signs of diabetes.
Symptoms of pathology in children
The symptoms of acute inflammation of the pancreas in children are not very different from those in adults: it is abdominal pain, due to which the child cries and cannot calm down, frequent vomiting, increased temperature, diarrhea, refusal to eat.
Acute pancreatitis in a child is manifested by abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting
There are cases when a child develops chronic pancreatitis. It does not necessarily manifest pain, but gland insufficiency – in most cases. If the pancreas does not work, the child has the following symptoms:
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- growth retardation;
- lack of weight gain, despite the usual diet;
- frequent loose stools, which do not wash out badly, alternate with constipation;
- the child gets tired quickly;
- dry skin and mucous membranes;
- blurred vision at dusk;
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Pancreas: symptoms of the disease
Let us examine the main functions of the pancreas, the role in the human body and the relationship with other organs. Signs of pancreatic disease, symptoms, diagnostic methods.
The pancreatic gland (pancreas) is an unpaired organ of the digestive system that performs its functions in two directions:
- Exocrine function. It consists in the development of pancreatic juice, which contains inactive forms of enzymes that are normally activated in the intestinal lumen:
- trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen – are responsible for the digestion of proteins;
- amylase – digestion of carbohydrates;
- lipase, phospholipase – fat digestion.
- Endocrine function. In the endocrine portion of the pancreas, hormones are produced that regulate certain types of exchanges:
A) Insulin is produced by B cells and is responsible for the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Glucose under the influence of this hormone enters the cells, thereby reducing its content in the blood.
B) Glucagon is an insulin antagonist. Produced by A-cells.
B) Somatostatin – inhibits the production of insulin and glucagon, as well as somatotropic hormone.
D) Vasointestinal peptide – activates the secretion of pancreatic juice and hormones, and also dilates the blood vessels, which provides some reduction in blood pressure.
Symptoms of pancreatic disease: symptoms.
Since the gland performs both exo- and endocrine function, various violations of its function lead to serious consequences. This means that the symptoms of pancreatic disease manifest themselves in different ways, depending on the cause.
The main diseases of this gland are:
- Pancreatitis (acute and chronic).
- Diabetes mellitus of the first type.
- Tumors of the pancreas (cancer and hormonally active tumors).
- Cysts and pseudocyst gland.
- Stones in the excretory ducts.
Pancreatitis is one of the common diseases of the pancreas.
Pancreatitis is an etiologic disease of the pancreas of inflammatory nature, occurring in phases. The essence of the disease lies in the premature activation of gland enzymes, chemical necrosis and self-digestion occurring. Further, secondary aggressive factors-endotoxins are released into the bloodstream and a systemic reaction of the body occurs.
- Alcohol – 40%.
- Biliary – 35% (associated with gallstone disease).
- Gastrogenic – 15%.
- Ischemic – 5% (thrombosis or atherosclerosis of the pancreatic vessels).
- Traumatic – 2%.
- Postoperative – 2%.
- Other reasons – 1%.
There is an attack of acute pancreatitis, usually against the background of a violation of the diet (excessive alcohol consumption, carbonated drinks, flour).
What are the symptoms of pancreatic disease?
Pain. The brightest symptom of this disease. Usually described by the patient as intense and permanent. Localization depends on the location of the lesion: the right or left hypochondrium, the epigastric region, also encircling with a total lesion. Pain can radiate to the back, arm, behind the sternum. Strengthened by movement and after eating. Patient behavior is associated with pain: anxious, require painkillers.
Vomiting. Repeated, not bringing relief. Possible vomiting with an admixture of bile or undigested food.
Flatulence. Associated with paresis of the small intestine and the resulting dynamic paralytic obstruction.
Cyanosis. Cyanotic spots may occur in the face (symptom of Mondor), on the sides (Gray-Turner’s symptom), the area of the pupil (Grunwald symptom).
Subfebrile temperature. Typical usually for the onset of the disease.
Drop in blood pressure and tachycardia.
Soreness to palpation. Often, the lateral painful resistance of the anterior abdominal wall in the projection of the pancreas (Symptom Curte) can be observed. Possible pain on palpation of the lumbar region. There may be spasm of the abdominal muscles.
Yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes. It is associated with possible mechanical jaundice that occurs when the common bile duct is clamped.
These symptoms can be attributed to the early signs of the disease.
With the development of the inflammatory process develops a systemic reaction of the body. Hectic fever may develop, cyanosis is replaced by arterial hyperemia (redness), the so-called kallikrein face. You can diagnose positive symptoms of peritoneal irritation associated with the appearance of exudate in the abdominal cavity.
According to laboratory data can be determined by increased ESR and leukocytosis. Possible small hyperglycemia associated with necrosis of cells producing insulin. The most important, but not pathognomonic (characterizing a specific disease), is the increase in diastamimocha. However, the normal level of diastase does not indicate the absence of inflammation of the gland.
Differential diagnosis of the pancreas
Acute pancreatitis should be distinguished from other diseases with similar symptoms.
Osteochondrosis – pain on palpation of the vertebrae. Shingles – a rash on the skin. Pyelonephritis – increased pain when tapping in the projection of the kidneys and the appearance of blood in the urine after this examination. Sometimes it is necessary to differentiate pancreatitis with foodborne toxicoinfection. With pancreatitis, pain first appears, and then or with it vomiting, when poisoning, the situation is usually reversed. Perforation of the ulcer is also characterized by an acute onset, a fall in blood pressure and vomiting, but attention should be paid to the ulcer history. And during the examination one can observe a board-like abdomen, free air during X-ray.
Early and late complications of acute pancreatitis are distinguished.
To early include:
- Insufficiency of the cardiovascular system
- Renal failure
- Mental disorders due to poisoning by their own decay products
To late complications:
- Abdominal abscess
- Septic phlegmon
- Arrosive bleeding
- Purulent pancreatitis
Complicated pancreatitis usually requires surgical treatment.
A patient with signs of acute pancreatitis is urgently hospitalized in the surgical department.
The main prescription in the treatment of this pathology: to provide pancreatic cold, hunger and peace. Sampling and aspiration of gastric contents and complete hunger for several days is performed. Local hypothermia is ensured by ice bubbles. Analgesics and antispasmodics are prescribed. Functional rest of the gland is provided by the appointment of antacids and anti-enzyme drugs. Infusion and detoxification therapy is carried out, including with the use of hemosorption and hemodialysis. If you suspect an infection may use antibiotics. Meals are usually parenteral or via a malignant probe. Surgical treatment is indicated when the appearance of complications or failure of conservative treatment.
A fairly common inflammatory disease of the nature when there is a degeneration of normal glandular tissue in the connective, as well as relapses with different frequency. Often this is a continuation of the acute process not cured in time. Symptomatology is characterized by intermittent pain, usually after an error in the diet and continuing a different amount of time. The appearance of intolerance to products of different nature is drawing attention, which is due to the lack of synthesis of the necessary enzymes. In general, dyspeptic syndrome may manifest belching, heartburn, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, that is, the symptoms are very different.
Diagnosis is also based on a survey (alcohol abuse, the presence of gallstone disease), clinics, laboratory and instrumental studies (x-rays; ultrasound; plasma enzymes).
Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by an acute period, the diagnosis and treatment of which is described above. During the recovery period, the patient is shown strict adherence to a diet, refusal to drink alcohol, and also drug therapy:
- Preparations against spasms (no-shpa, papaverine) for relieving pain syndrome.
- Proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, rabeprazole), to reduce pancreatic and stomach secretion.
- Antacids to neutralize the hydrochloric acid of the stomach.
- Enzyme preparations (mezim-forte, creon) to replenish exocrine gland insufficiency.
Reactive pancreatitis in children.
Inflammation of the pancreas in children has its own specific features. First, the main causes include various inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract (gastritis, cholecystitis), unhealthy nutrition of the child (large amounts of fatty foods, soda, foods with preservatives), stressful situations. Secondly, stagnation occurs due to a spasm of the excretory ducts, as a result, pancreatic enzymes do not enter the intestine. Thirdly, the symptoms correspond to the symptoms of acute pancreatitis in adults, but in young children the signs may be erased. Therefore, in order to avoid irreparable consequences, with a combination of dyspeptic disorders and persistent abdominal pain, you should immediately consult a doctor or call an ambulance. The treatment is similar to the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Special attention should be paid to the diet: fractional food intake, restriction of sugars and fats, should be excluded legumes and cabbage.
A cyst is a pathological cavity that is filled with pancreatic secretions and tissue fluid. Cysts can be congenital and acquired. Acquired (pseudocyst) have no epithelial lining, and their walls are composed of fibrous tissue. The cause of the formation of pseudocyst often becomes pancreatitis. Symptoms of pancreatic disease in the presence of a cyst: pain in the epigastric region, palpable mass in the pancreatic region, mechanical jaundice is possible. To clarify the diagnosis is used ultrasound, CT, MRI. Perhaps percutaneous puncturing.
Treatment depends on the location, size and stage of development of the cyst. Several types of surgical treatment of cysts are used: open surgery, percutaneous puncture and video endoscopic methods. In case of complications, such as: suppuration or rupture of a cyst, urgent surgery is required. It should also be noted that a cyst may be a precursor of tumor development.
Tumors of the pancreas.
It is difficult to talk about the causes of development, but the risk factors include: heredity, bad habits, overweight.
The main form of pancreatic cancer is the defeat of the duct. The disease is extremely dangerous because the symptoms appear quite late, and standard diagnostic methods can not always help to identify the tumor. From here late statement of the diagnosis when treatment already hardly helps. The symptoms of pancreatic disease in cancer are not numerous. A symptom that indicates the possible presence of a tumor is mechanical jaundice. In this case, this symptom can not say either about the stage, or in general, about the presence of a tumor. Therefore, the pancreas symptoms of the disease is different, including hidden.
An ultrasound is performed. The main method is x-rays and CT. This allows you to specify the stage, location, and the presence of metastases. Surgical treatment, with an operable tumor. However, not all diseases of the pancreas can be cured. Malignant neoplasms in the later stages are not removed.
Type 1 diabetes.
Autoimmune diseases of the pancreas, which is characterized by insufficient secretion of the hormone insulin. Also called juvenile diabetes. Symptomatology is severe, the disease is acute. The patient can accurately name the beginning of his illness. The condition without treatment is rapidly deteriorating.
Symptoms of pancreatic disease:
- Frequent diuresis.
- Insatiable hunger
- Weight loss
- Fast fatiguability
Examination reveals low insulin levels, hyperglycemia (up to 10 mmol / l 2 hours after a meal and more
Treatment consists of following a diet, maintaining an active lifestyle and compulsory insulin injections. Treatment is prescribed by a doctor.
Diseases of the pancreas are quite common, especially in the modern world. The signs and symptoms of pancreatic disease can vary greatly. Therefore, if there are signs of indigestion, prolonged pain or other signals indicating a violation in the body, you should consult a doctor, as pancreatic diseases can be life-threatening.