Dyskeratosis is a pathological process, which is based on the violation of the keratinization of the epithelium, when the cells of the spinous layer of the skin undergo diskeratization and degeneration. As a result, the connection between cellular structures is disturbed, and their location becomes chaotic. The disease is benign and looks like patches of slight scaling or malignant, accompanying some diseases.
Dyskeratosis occurs due to the fact that the contact layer of desmosomes dissolves and there is a detachment of the tonofibrils, which accumulate further around the nucleus. The cells become denser, acquire a round shape, begin to detach from the rest of the epidermis cells.
The causes of such a breakdown in the bonds of cellular structures can be exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal).
Among the causes affecting the skin from the external environment, dyskeratosis is caused by:
- Wearing tight shoes, because of which the tissue is compressed and the abnormal cell proliferation and exfoliation of dead cells are activated.
- Obesity, excess weight increases the load on the feet, which is the pressure on the skin.
- Flat feet, diseases of the joints of the legs, curvature of the bones of the feet, lameness, increased stress on the ankle – all of these pathologies interfere with the uniform distribution of the load on the feet and develop hyperkeratosis.
- Long-term use of glucocorticosteroids, which accelerates cell renewal processes.
- Frequent and long insolation. Under the influence of ultraviolet best skin dry up, it provokes pathological processes in the epidermis.
- Professional factors, such as frequent interaction with aggressive chemicals.
- Damage to the cervix with medical instruments for abortions or surgeries.
- The effects of chemicals on the uterus mucosa.
- Inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system or sexually transmitted diseases in history.
The category of internal causes of dyskeratosis include:
- Diabetes mellitus, accompanied by a violation of skin sensitivity, blood supply to the skin and an increase in its dryness.
- Genetically caused violation of keratin synthesis.
- Diseases that cause pathological processes and changes in the epidermis. These include eczematous, psoriatic, seborrheic skin lesions, herpes, molluscum contagiosum and contact dermatitis.
- Various erythroderma, accompanied by redness and peeling of the skin.
- Fungal lesions of the skin.
- Genital infections, such as syphilis and gonorrhea.
- Disorders in the endocrine system, especially increased estrogen levels.
- Nervous system disorders, such as depression, severe stress.
- Oncological processes.
- Lack of vitamins A, C, E and group B.
- Pathology in the work of the intestine, liver disease and gallbladder.
- Puberty, accompanied by active production of hormones and creatine.
- Aging, accompanied by a decrease in the synthesis of hormones and slowing down the process of renewal of skin cells.
- Reduced immunity to infections.
- Human papillomavirus.
- Violation of therapy or the wrong approach to it in the treatment of cervical ectopia.
Dyskeratosis can be benign and malignant, the latter is found in Bowen’s disease and squamous cell carcinoma.
According to its developmental mechanism, this pathology is:
- proliferative, when an abnormally large amount of keratin is synthesized;
- retention, when the process of exfoliating dead skin cells slows down.
Dyskeratosis can be acquired, developing over the course of a person’s life due to internal disturbances or diseases, or congenital, when heredity plays a major role.
According to the clinical manifestations classified dyskeratosis:
- diffuse, which affects large areas of the skin;
- follicular, affecting hair follicles;
Since dyskeratosis can accompany various diseases, it is necessary to distinguish its symptoms from the signs of the diseases themselves.
When dyskeratosis, the skin looks drained and scaly, the work of the sweat glands is significantly reduced, there are areas with keratinous plates that form layers from 2 to 30 mm. Occurs keratinization of hair follicles, the formation of nodules, skin bumps of different sizes. Cracks begin to appear, most often they are deep and painful, mainly on the feet, elbows and palms, less often on the head.
The entire pathological process accompanies bleeding, the appearance of ulcerations and erosions, which over time capture a large area of skin and spread throughout the body. Limited foci resemble warts or calluses.
Diskeratosis of the skin and mucous membranes accompanies various keratoses and diseases. It differs in its specific symptoms depending on the disease with which it is combined.
Treatment of dyskeratosis of the skin and mucous membranes begins with the use of moisturizers and vitamin complexes. The specialist prescribes the use of emollient, moisturizing ointments, external preparations containing lactic and fruit acid for mild exfoliation of the stratum corneum. Hormone preparations, aromatic retinoids can be prescribed.
Therapy also includes physiotherapy, such as cryotherapy and laser therapy. And necessarily conduct treatment causes of dyskeratosis.
Diskeratosis of the cervical leukoplakia can be simple or scaly.
With simple dyskeratosis, symptoms are absent and this makes diagnosis difficult. Scaly – affects not only the cervix, but also protrudes above its surface, in the form of whitish plaques against a pink-mucous background.
Occasionally, a woman may be disturbed by bleeding from a small volume between periods and most often after intercourse.
Pathology affects different parts of the mucous, from small to large areas, can completely cover the cervix and vagina. To detect minimal changes, a Schiller test with iodine is used to stain the pathological area. In the case of extensive lesions, cytological examinations of the smear are performed, and atypia is examined by biopsy. Carry out and scraping the epithelium of the cervix.
These examinations are necessary to rule out precancerous changes in the cervix.
Treatment of such pathology is carried out by surgical intervention. Pathological areas are cauterized with a laser, rarely by chemical means. The operation is performed on the seventh day of the woman’s menstrual cycle.
Congenital dyskeratosis is a hereditary form of the disease associated with the X chromosome.
This pathology includes a triad of symptoms:
- nail dystrophic changes;
- skin hyperpigmentation;
- leukoplakia mucous.
The primary manifestation of congenital dyskeratosis – nail dystrophy, they become thinner, becoming brittle and striated in the longitudinal direction. After a few years, the skin of the face, neck, upper chest becomes mesh hyperpigmented. The lesion site is on average about 2–8 mm in diameter. The integuments atrophy, turn brown, spider veins appear on them. Often, hyperhidrosis and hyperkeratosis of the feet and palms, acrocyanosis and baldness develop. After a while, the nails, often on the little fingers of the feet, fall away.
As the patient grows older, anemia develops, and by the age of 25–30, the mucous membranes of the mouth are affected, papules or vesicles are formed, alternating with erosions, papillomas appear, the nipples of the tongue atrophy, and teeth fall out. Over time, leukoplakia goes to other mucous membranes of internal organs.
The treatment is aimed at restoring the bone marrow functions by transplanting it. Assign anabolic hormones, colony-stimulating factors, erythropoietins.