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Speaking about the prevention of rotavirus infection, we should start with two main points:
- Rotaviruses are transmitted by contact-household (as a result of contact with a sick person, as well as with his secretions) and alimentary (food, food, water) by.
- Rotaviruses are resistant to the damaging effects of the external environment, they are not easily killed by ordinary disinfectants, but are easily transmitted through contaminated hands and toys, for infection it is enough to get a low dose of virus particles (from 10 to 100).
Contamination of natural waters, and consequently of tap water, with rotaviruses is one of the main reasons for the increase in the incidence of rotavirus infection. Prevention of infection is to provide the population with clean drinking water and sanitary and hygienic measures.
With regard to domestic situations, it is boiling drinking water and maintaining personal hygiene with compulsory hand washing after using the toilet, before preparing food, after returning from the street. With hands and dirty clothes, rotaviruses are perfectly washed off with toilet and laundry soap, washing powder.
Fruit after washing under tap water, it is desirable to scald with boiling water. Moreover, it is necessary to do this with baby nipples, bottles, toys. The increase in the incidence of viral diarrhea occurs in winter, so at this time of year it is necessary to take more seriously its prevention in families with young children — use boiled water not only for drinking but also for washing dishes and bathing babies.
Given that currently rotavirus infection is a major factor in the onset of acute intestinal disorders in young children, breastfeeding infants are not the last place in prevention.
The priority area of prevention is vaccination of the population. Unfortunately, a vaccine against rotavirus infection has not been developed in the Russian Federation. Prophylactic anti-rotovirus vaccination is carried out in the United States and European countries. There are currently two live attenuated rotavirus vaccines in the world (RotaTeq, Merck and Rotarix ™, GlaxoSmithKline). The vaccine Rotarix ™ is registered in Ukraine. Evidence was obtained of the effectiveness of Rotarix ™ against various serotypes of rotaviruses.
Vaccination against rotavirus infection is recommended for all children aged from 6 to 24 weeks of age. For the full course of vaccination, 2 doses of vaccine are administered at intervals of 4 weeks. The Rotarix ™ vaccine provides 80% protection against rotavirus infection and almost 100% against the development of severe forms of the disease.
Prevention in the outbreak of rotavirus infection is that patients are isolated from healthy for 10-15 days. When the disease is mild, patients stay at home under the supervision of a local doctor, but only if the patient is treated and isolated. The apartment is wet cleaning using disinfectants (0.5% solution of chloramine). The most effective disinfectant for rotavirus is a 95% ethanol solution (for the treatment of hands and surfaces). Kills rotavirus by boiling.
In the body of the patient, specific antibodies of the IgA, IgM and IgG class against rotavirus are formed, which persist for 1-2 years, then their titer falls. They protect against repeated cases of the disease. This protection is partial, since it is directed only against the serotype (type) of rotavirus that caused the disease. There are several serotypes of rotavirus, so the probability of re-infection during the year is 30%.
Immunity to rotavirus is unstable, so one year after the initial disease, infection with the same serotype is possible again. However, if a twice-suffered disease with the same serotype proceeded in a moderate form, the immunity is formed 2-3 times longer and persistent.