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By a kidney cyst we mean a benign neoplasm of a rounded shape, bounded by a capsule of connective tissue, inside which contains fluid. The topic affects today about 70% of patients who have problems with this organ.
Usually, doctors have to face in their practice with a simple single cyst, reaching from 1 to 10 centimeters. Cyst formation is usually observed at the upper renal pole or at the lower.
Is it dangerous, and what are the consequences for the kidneys, find out further.
Causes of cyst
If a patient has a simple cyst on the kidney and is diagnosed, the causes of its occurrence most often remain unsolved. Specialists in this case tend to think about the acquired nature of the pathology. Usually, when it appeared, the causes of kidney cysts are injuries, as well as infections in the urinary tract and kidneys. About 5% of patients get this disease by inheritance, that is, their anomaly refers to congenital.
When a patient is informed that he has had a cyst on the kidney, what to do and how to treat it is of paramount importance.
Congenital cyst of the kidney
Congenital cysts are called the following formations:
- Solitary This benign neoplasm looks like an oval filled with serous fluid or a ball that does not have constrictions or ducts. Usually, one organ is affected. The contents of the cyst may be present pus or in the case of injury – blood. In half the cases, the doctors discover several at the same time. Solitary cyst of the kidney, usually left, is more common in men.
- Multicystosis, in which only one kidney is affected. This disease can be observed no more often than in 1% of cases. If the form of the disease is severe, the organ looks like a single solid cyst, while it completely loses its function. But also in the kidney some healthy area can be preserved, producing a little urine accumulated in the cavities.
- Polycystic. It is characterized by damage to both organs, and they have the appearance of grape leaves. In most cases, polycystic disease develops in people suffering from poor heredity.
- Spongy kidney, called multicystic medullary substance. It refers to the congenital pathology of the kidneys with its characteristic expansion of the collecting duct and the formation of many small cysts.
- Dermoid, or dermoid kidney cyst, the occurrence of which is due to poor genetic inheritance. In this case, the formation of cysts is observed, within which elements of the ectoderm are collected, for example, fat, teeth, hair, bone inclusions, epidermis, etc.
- Renal disease that occurs in hereditary pathologies of the kidneys: tuberculous sclerosis, Zellweger syndrome, Meckel’s syndrome, Hippel-Lindau syndrome, etc.
Cyst of the kidney, the code for MKB 10 means that the disease in the international classification belongs to the 10th class.
Acquired kidney cyst
The causes of kidney cysts acquired can be various diseases, such as: tuberculosis, heart attack, medullary necrosis, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, parasitic infections, tumors, etc.Depending on the number of tumors, is divided into:
- single kidney cyst;
- multiple kidney cyst.
By the nature of the lesion of an organ, an acquired cyst can be:
- unilateral cysts;
Depending on the location, cysts are isolated:
- parenchymal, located in the renal tissue, and if during the examination a cyst was found in the sinus parenchyma, then an intra-sinus cyst is diagnosed;
- subcapsular, formed under the renal capsule;
- cortical, which is formed in the cortical layer;
- okolokhanochnuyu, localized near the pelvis, without touching that;
- multi-chamber, or multilocular.
The nature of the contents of the cyst determines the division of:
- complex kidney cyst.
In this case, the treatment is prompt.
Categorization by category
There are three categories:
cyst 1 category. It includes the most common benign formations that are easily identified during ultrasound.
cyst 2 categories. Here you can include benign cysts with membranes and small changes. They are hyper-intense, calcified or infected. The diameter of such cysts reaches three centimeters.
cyst 3 categories. Malignant cysts belong to this category. Due to the more dense and hard shells and membranes such tumors can not always be detected on radiography. Usually they involve an immediate operation.
Symptoms and effects
If you have to talk about the formation, the symptoms and treatment depend directly on the location and size. The most characteristic symptoms of this pathology can be called: dull pain arising in the lumbar zone or under the ribs, especially strongly felt after physical exertion. In addition, patients may complain of hypertension – a symptom characteristic of hypertension, as well as the development of total hematuria. In this case, it is possible to detect a cyst using the method of palpation, although this method of diagnosing the kidney is not the most informative, because using it, the cyst can be confused with the lower segment of the kidney or with a true tumor.
In the case of cyst suppuration or rupture, the patient may experience severe pain, and inflammatory processes may also occur.
Studying the topic, it is important to understand that most often the disease occurs without visible signs, and for quite a long time it may not manifest in any way.
Sometimes a kidney cyst can only cause pain, and sometimes lead to the development of diseases such as pyelonephritis or hydronephrosis. About 10% of patients suffering from a kidney cyst acquire, over time, renal failure.
Cysts in women
Cyst kidney in women is almost 2 times less than in men. If she showed herself at a young age, then rather it is just a congenital disease. Usually it affects people aged. During examination, several blood and urine tests are always taken. It is these two components that will precisely “tell” about the state of the organ, since the kidney affects the formation of both.
Drug treatment of cysts
If a kidney cyst is found in the patient, the causes, symptoms, classification and treatment are important steps in the work of his attending physician. However, it does not provide for special treatment, but only needs dynamic observation. If the development of a neoplasm has led to the occurrence of pyelonephritis (acute / chronic), arterial hypertension of renal origin, or to urolithiasis, then the patient is recommended symptomatic treatment.
In order to aspirate the cystic contents of the kidney to the patient during treatment, a percutaneous puncture is performed, which is the safest and least traumatic procedure. However, unfortunately, it is not necessary to speak about high efficiency, since half of the cases relapse of the disease takes place. When a percutaneous puncture is used in the kidney treatment, followed by drainage of the cyst of the kidney, drainage is inserted into the cystic capsule to empty it, causing the walls of the cyst to subside and scarring is observed. Using this method of treatment can be unsafe, because there is a risk of infection of the organ.
In the treatment of symptomatic and recurrent neoplasms of the kidneys, the method of laparoscopic excision can be used as an alternative to percutaneous puncture of the kidney, as well as open cavity surgery. Today, this technique is the most popular in medicine. Due to the introduction of modern laparoscopic equipment in urology, the principles of diagnosis and treatment of the kidney have changed. The method of laparoscopy is based on a radical operation by making three five-millimeter incisions on the abdominal wall of the kidney.
Despite the successful use of the methods described above for the kidneys, open surgery is sometimes recommended in the treatment of the kidney. It is prescribed in the event of a rupture of a cyst or during its suppuration, as well as in the degeneration of a benign neoplasm of the kidney into a malignant one. In addition, an open operation is also carried out in the event of detection of cysts that lead to the loss of the renal parenchyma or to renal hypertension or in the presence of some forms of urolithiasis and stricture of the pelvic-ureteric segment. Such an intervention involves the excision or husking of the free wall of the cyst, resection or removal of the kidney – nephrectomy.
Traditional methods of treating cysts
If a kidney cyst is detected, treatment with folk remedies is limited to only two plants. But their strength is so great that nothing more is required. What does this pathology of the kidney not stand? It’s about burdock and celandine.
Find this grass is very easy. It is recommended to collect the fresh green part, and not to buy in a pharmacy in a dried form.
Burdock squeeze to collect some juice. For each time enough two tablespoons before meals. You can make a mush in a meat grinder or other grinder. The main thing is that it is always fresh. In the beginning you need to use a teaspoon in the morning and evening (about 3 days). Then we increase reception up to 3 times a day. After a week of this treatment, you can increase the portion to a tablespoon. The course is 4 weeks, then the same break, and repeat again.
Celandine make weak infusions. Drink 1 glass a day, but remember that the plant is toxic. Therefore, it is imperative to drink milk and sour milk products in treatment with a total volume of 750 ml per day.