The heart and blood vessels together constitute a single system: the cardiovascular. They are connected not only anatomically, but also functionally. The main task of the cardiovascular system is the delivery of blood with nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body. It is for this that the heart works. With each contraction, it throws a new portion of blood into the aorta. From here, blood is dispersed in all other vessels, as a pulse wave rolls through all arteries.
Heart rate is normally around 70 per minute, but may vary slightly within normal limits. The pulse rate depends on age, temperament, fitness, but in any case, an adult will not have pronounced changes in heart rate in normal at rest. An increase in heart rate is tachycardia, a decrease is bradycardia. Regulation of heart rhythm is difficult. It occurs both from the outside (center in the medulla oblongata) and the heart itself. In the heart there is an autonomous pacemaker who controls the heart rate.
If the pulse is excessively accelerated, the heart muscle works with overload, the muscle cells do not have enough time to receive oxygen in sufficient quantity and an attack of angina can begin.
If bradycardia becomes excessive, blood pressure drops and a person may lose consciousness, because in this case not enough oxygen goes to the brain cells.
The regulation of blood pressure is much more difficult. It depends on two factors: heart function and vascular tone. That is, the heart pumps blood into the vessel, while there is a certain pressure on the vessel wall. And the wall itself, in the composition of which there are also muscle fibers, can relax, and can on the contrary come in tone. The result of the ratio of blood filling and vascular wall tone will be blood pressure.
In normal blood pressure is 120 – 130 systolic and 80 – 90 diastolic. Systole – contraction of the heart, diastole – the moment of relaxation of the heart muscle. High blood pressure is considered to be elevated from 140 systolic, and from 90 diastolic.
If the pressure is constantly increased or repeated rises in pressure have been reported, they will be diagnosed with hypertension.
If the pressure is increased, but a rare pulse
In the case when the heart is rarely reduced, it is, as is easy to guess, pumps less blood. Most often this is due to a disease of the heart muscle itself. Reduced heart muscle resource. This can occur during dilatation (that is, stretching) of the heart chamber, endocarditis. In response, the vessels increase their tone to make the blood get to the tissues and bring oxygen to the brain.
In case of unexpected detection of high pressure and a rare pulse, it is necessary to examine the patient in more detail. For this, hospitalization for cardiology is recommended. It is necessary not only to make a cardiogram, but to carry out daily monitoring, make a test with a load, and then select a therapy. Usually in these cases they avoid directly affecting the heart. Therefore, a diuretic is prescribed to reduce blood volume. If the blood volume decreases, the pressure will decrease.
Usually, in hypertension, so-called beta blockers are prescribed. These are adrenoline receptor blockers that reduce cardiac output. But in this case, they are contraindicated, because not only reduce the release of blood, but also reduce the heart rate. And this is dangerous in this case, as decompensation and loss of consciousness can occur.
If the patient has complaints related to the heart, it is better to turn to a cardiologist. Modern cardiology has many methods of examination and treatment. An experienced cardiologist can make a diagnosis, relying on his experience, but it is still confirmed with the help of instrumental methods of research. In no case should not begin to take a remedy for hypertension, focusing on those drugs that are prescribed to a neighbor or sister. With external similarity, the diagnosis may be completely different and the methods of patient management, respectively.