Liver cirrhosis is a serious disease requiring serious treatment. Of course, it sounds like a sentence. But it is important to know that many of the causes of this complex ailment are treatable and controllable. The most important thing, as in any illness, is to recognize its signs in time, immediately consult a doctor and preserve health and life. Better yet, take all preventive measures so as not to wait for the last stage of cirrhosis of the liver, during which there is virtually no chance of survival.
Why do we need it and what functions it performs? The liver is an organ that performs a very responsible function of cleaning the body of toxins, is actively involved in the synthesis of fats, proteins and carbohydrates, promotes normal digestion and the development of substances necessary for the body. Cirrhosis is the result of various chronic liver diseases – the body grows in size, thickens and becomes scarred, and its contours become rough and uneven. Liver cells (hepatocytes) can no longer cope with their function. Pathological destruction in the cells of the body becomes irreversible, harmful toxic substances enter the bloodstream, causing intoxication and creating a serious threat to the life of the organism. If the right actions are not taken in time, liver failure develops, and, according to statistics, in the 2-4th year of the disease – the last stage of liver cirrhosis and death.
Causes of liver cirrhosis
The primary cause of liver damage is most often hepatitis viruses, among which hepatitis C is the most dangerous, as it threatens to develop cirrhosis in almost 97% of cases. Fortunately, hepatitis is now well treatable. As well as frequent and uncontrolled use of alcoholic beverages, which, in fact, poison the liver, and the whole body – up to 50% of cases of cirrhosis develops due to alcohol abuse. Often the disease is almost unnoticeable, asymptomatic – this is especially characteristic of the male body. Medicinal type of disease occurs due to the effects of certain drugs as a result of long-term use. Especially negative influence on the liver heavy drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis, cancer, some antiseptics with prolonged use.
There is also a congenital form of the disease – as a result of certain genetic pathologies. With heart problems and insufficient blood circulation, with prolonged venous stasis in the liver, it is possible to diagnose the manifestations of the pathology, its congestive form. Photos of people in the last stage of liver cirrhosis are presented below.
There is also the so-called cryptogenic form of the disease. This type is characterized by the absence of objective reasons, that is, according to the results of a comprehensive survey, they do not find the causes of the disease. This type of cirrhosis is more common in women.
Also, under adverse conditions for the body to cirrhosis can lead to:
- poisoning by poisonous mushrooms or an alcohol substitute;
- stones, cysts in the biliary tract;
- metabolic disorders, diabetes, obesity;
- helminthic invasions in the liver;
- the phenomena of chronic heart failure, etc.
How is the last stage of cirrhosis of the liver, tell below.
Early signs of illness
But this terrible disease can be diagnosed in the initial stages, listening to the signals of the body.
Symptoms that should alert:
- Periodic pain in the right hypochondrium, aggravated after physical exertion or after heavy, fatty and fried foods, alcoholic beverages, and pain can pass only by itself, analgesics do not help.
- Morning dryness, feeling of bitterness.
- Frequent frustration of a chair, displays of a meteorism.
- Weight loss, irritability, fatigue.
- It happens, the disease manifest icteric symptoms already in the early stages of development.
In rare cases, the disease develops acutely, with no noticeable early signs.
Symptoms of pathology
Symptoms of the disease is quite diverse. What is it manifested in? The liver cirrhosis is primarily indicated by dull, but constantly increasing pain in the abdomen, in the right hypochondrium, which subsequently becomes unbearable, and even narcotic drugs are prescribed to the patient as anesthetic. Also, symptoms of the disease are indigestion (heaviness in the abdomen, flatulence, nausea and vomiting), rapid saturation with a small portion of food, sometimes symptoms such as itchy skin, a slight increase in body temperature, nasal bleeding.
With the further development of the disease manifest the most characteristic symptoms corresponding to this disease:
- yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes is detected, indicating a high content of bilirubin in the blood;
- varicose bleeding, bruising, bruising, decreased blood clotting;
- weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite and even its complete loss;
- ascites at the last stage of cirrhosis in men and women (increase in the volume of fluid in the peritoneal cavity).
Stages of development of cirrhosis
There are three main stages in the development of the disease:
When there are no pronounced symptoms, but the process of necrosis of the liver cells is in progress, and the rest of the cells have to work in an enhanced mode.
Here are the first signs: weakness, nausea, feeling of fullness in the abdomen, pain in the right hypochondrium, loss of appetite. Appear venous mesh on the skin; hair may fall out.
- The last stage of cirrhosis is decompensation.
It is characterized by the appearance of such complications as ascites, icteric signs, various kinds of bleeding, muscle atrophy of the limbs and upper shoulder girdle.
Symptoms of the last stage of cirrhosis are frightening.
How does the last stage of the disease manifest?
We will understand more in this matter. The liver shrinks and can no longer cope with its functions – growing liver failure. Further complications develop – ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, cancer. Often, internal bleeding occurs and hepatic coma develops, which is fatal.
Patients at this stage have characteristic features:
- pale yellow flabby skin and yellow eyeballs;
- on the skin of the face and body red and purple vascular spiders, especially noticeable venous mesh on the abdomen;
- emaciated hands and feet, bruises on the limbs;
- strongly enlarged abdomen with prominent navel;
- on the palms, red skin (erythema) with thickened phalanges and characteristic dull nails (watch glasses);
- swollen feet.
Symptoms of the last stage of cirrhosis in men and women do not differ much.
Other manifestations are also possible: speech disorder, uncharacteristic, angular movements of body parts, sharp mood swings, increased excitability is replaced by drowsiness. The patient needs immediate hospitalization.
Treatment at this stage continues, but it is already ineffective. All therapeutic procedures are aimed at maintaining the functioning of the patient.
We will understand how many people live with cirrhosis in the last stage.
The life expectancy of patients with this diagnosis depends on the root cause of the disease, the stage at which it was diagnosed, and the complications that could have appeared before the start of treatment.. Statistics, unfortunately disappointing. The survival rate for the latter degree cirrhosis is as follows: only 10-40% of patients can live for only 3 years, and if hepatic coma has developed – almost 100% death. But it is important to understand that the statistics are always averaged. The prognosis for life is influenced by the following factors:
- age and physical condition of the patient;
- the presence of infections;
- whether complications have appeared in the form of ascites, bleeding, hepatic coma, cancer;
- compliance with the recommendations received from doctors;
- Much depends on the effectiveness of the treatment or its absence;
- individual tolerance of drugs;
- psychological attitude of the patient.
Of course, cirrhosis is a serious illness that brings suffering to both the patient and his family. It is very important for those close to maintain the patient’s fighting spirit and optimism, despite the ordeal. If a liver transplant is not performed (and this is not available to everyone), then the patient’s death usually occurs within 3 years. However, it is important to continue the prescribed treatment in the last stage of cirrhosis (photo presented). Thus, it is possible to minimize the signs of the disease and prolong life.
So, the disease can not be cured. Doctors prescribed treatment can only support the functioning of the body and try to extend the life of the patient. There is a chance to beat cirrhosis – this is a liver transplant. However, such an operation is not shown to everyone. Most patients, even with transplantation, receive a very poor prognosis for life. But the refusal of hospitalization, violation of the regime and failure to comply with the appointments recommended by the doctor, significantly reduce life expectancy.
What is meant by this? Prevention of cirrhosis is reduced to eliminate the effects of the factors causing this disease. For example, prevention is the complete refusal or restriction of alcohol consumption, timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases leading to the development of cirrhosis. Also very important is a healthy good nutrition and the exclusion of ingestion of toxic substances with food, respect for water balance and an active lifestyle. And still need to monitor blood pressure and weight.
We looked at how the last stage of cirrhosis and a photo of patients proceeds.