A decrease in hemoglobin level occurs when there is a deficiency in iron, folic acid, or vitamin B12 that is involved in the blood formation process. The choice of drugs to increase hemoglobin and fill microelement deficiencies in the body is carried out depending on the causes of pathology.
One of the most effective methods to increase hemoglobin level is the use of iron-containing drugs, which fully meet the body’s needs for iron, as well as contribute to the normalization of blood formation, and are prescribed in the following cases:
- abundant periods in women;
- acute and chronic bleeding;
- irritable bowel syndrome;
- Crohn’s disease;
- regular blood donation;
- lack of micronutrients and vitamins in the diet;
- celiac disease;
Varieties of drugs
All drugs for raising hemoglobin can be classified according to the form of release (solid or liquid), method of administration (oral and parenteral) and composition, on the basis of which there are two main groups:
- With ferrous iron in the form of gluconate, sulphate or fumurate. Small molecules in the composition of the drug are able to quickly penetrate the blood and increase hemoglobin, but even a slight overdose can lead to poisoning and a number of other negative effects associated with irritation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines.
- With ferric hydroxide based on polymaltose complex (CCP). A more modern means with an increased size of molecules, due to which the absorption is regulated by physiological needs, and the excess is removed with feces, which eliminates the possibility of overdose and poisoning.
The effectiveness of drugs with iron in each case depends on the form of release of the drug (syrup, solution, tablets, injections):
- A syrup or solution is prescribed in the case of reduced acidity of the stomach, after postponed operations on the gastrointestinal tract or in children and old age, which is caused by difficulties with dissolving the solid shells of the tablets.
- Tablets and capsules are used in the absence of pathologies on the part of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and excretory system, for the prevention of anemia, including during pregnancy.
- Iron in ampoules for injection is used in violation of the absorption of trace elements from food, intolerance to tablets and solutions, with critically low hemoglobin. Injections should be carried out strictly under the supervision of a physician, since parenteral iron preparations can cause a number of side effects: nausea, asthma attacks, tachycardia, and abnormal heart function.
The list of the most effective drugs that increase hemoglobin in the blood, compiled taking into account the ratio of the optimal daily dosage and treatment time, features of pharmacological action, side effects and toxic effects on the body.
The drug based on iron hydroxide polymaltozate, is available in the form of tablets (100 mg), chewable capsules (100 mg), oral solution (20 mg per 1 ml) and syrup (10 and 50 mg per 1 ml of liquid).
Assimilation occurs in proportion to the needs of the organism, for example, with a reduced level of hemoglobin digestibility increases by 20-30%.
Maltofer is prescribed to both children and the elderly, but is contraindicated in the pathologies of the excretory system, megaloblastic and hemolytic anemia. Disorders of the digestive tract and overdose during drug use are rare.
A combination product for adults in the form of capsules, containing a number of active substances: ferrous sulfate, ascorbic and pantothenic acid, riboflavin, nicotinamide, thiamine and pyridoxine hydrochloride.
Fenules not only increases hemoglobin, but is also used to prevent a lack of B group vitamins, for anemia during pregnancy and for hookworm.
Contraindications to the use of phenylsa are individual intolerance to the components, hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis. Among the side effects emit dizziness, indigestion, pain in the stomach and duodenum.
Means to stimulate blood formation in the form of a dark brown liquid based on iron gluconate with an additional content of manganese and copper, promoting the active use of the trace element for the formation of enzymes and intensive production of hemoglobin in the bone marrow.
Totem can be used for children from 3 months, but it is forbidden to use in case of poisoning with copper, lead, manganese, duodenal ulcer in the acute stage and with fructose intolerance. The drug can not be combined with preparations of magnesium, aluminum, calcium, with tetracycline and ciprofloxacin.
Tablets for increasing hemoglobin with a complex composition. 1 tablet contains 320 mg of iron sulfate and 60 mg of ascorbic acid, which promotes better absorption of the product. The process of release and absorption of the microelement occurs gradually, which reduces irritation of the intestinal mucosa.
Surphyber is prescribed to adults and children from 10 years old with iron deficiency anemia. With the right dosage, hemoglobin values normalize within 3-4 months. Contraindications to the use of the drug are gastrointestinal stenosis, tendency to thrombosis, diabetes, kidney disease, urolithiasis.
Drops, capsules or syrup based on iron sulfate heptahydrate and l and d-serine in various dosages. Serine is an amino acid that provides rapid penetration of the trace element into the bloodstream, which increases the effectiveness of the drug in the use of lower dosages.
Aktiferrin can be administered both to children, including newborns, and adults during pregnancy, with malnutrition, after resection or stomach ulcers, with acidic gastritis, as well as for the prevention of anemia.
A single component preparation (tablets, syrup) containing ferrous gluconate at a dosage of 300 mg in one tablet or in 5 ml of syrup has a high absorbability (up to 90%). To increase hemoglobin in a short time, tablets are taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating to eliminate the negative effects of food.
Ferronal can be used to treat and prevent anemia at any age, including women who are breastfed. If the use of syrup and tablets is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, then it is recommended to reduce the daily dosage.
Means for raising hemoglobin on the basis of iron fumarate in 350 mg capsules. Heferol take 1 capsule in the morning 30 minutes before meals. The drug can be used to treat iron deficiency anemia in children over 12 years old and adults with malabsorption syndrome and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
When using Heferol, the following side effects may occur: pain in the back, abdomen, lowering blood pressure, dizziness, headache, tachycardia, allergic reactions.
A solution of trivalent iron for oral administration in ampoules of 40 mg, which is prescribed for low hemoglobin, for the prevention of iron deficiency states, including during pregnancy, breastfeeding and in childhood.
The tool is contraindicated in liver cirrhosis and chronic pancreatitis, with hemolytic anemia. The drug is taken strictly after a meal, as after taking Ferlatum on an empty stomach, dyspeptic symptoms, intestinal pain, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness may appear.
The drug for intramuscular injections in the form of an aqueous solution of the iron-sorbitol complex. Ampoule (2 ml) contains 100 mg of iron. Fersinol can be administered to adults and children to stimulate the production of red blood cells.
The course of treatment ranges from 15 to 30 injections, depending on the hemoglobin and ferritin values. While using Fersinol, nausea and tenderness may occur at the injection site.
Hydroxide-sucrose complex of ferric iron for intravenous administration. Before treatment, it is necessary to test the solution to determine a possible allergic reaction, an increased risk of which exists in individuals with bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, eczema and polyvalent allergies.
Venofer is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, as well as in the first trimester of pregnancy. Among the side effects emit a decrease in pressure, headache, vomiting.
How to take
Dosage of iron with low hemoglobin is prescribed by a doctor at the rate of 3-4 milligrams per 1 kilogram of body weight, which is on average from 100 to 300 milligrams per day. During treatment, the daily dose may be reduced in the following cases:
- with severe disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
- with intolerance;
- with symptoms of intoxication.
In most cases, iron-containing drugs should be consumed between meals (in the morning), since food with some salts, acids and alkali in the composition affects the efficiency of iron absorption.
At 10-15 days after the start of treatment, a blood test should be performed to check the effectiveness of the prescribed drugs, the results of which for a normal state should look like this:
- an increase in the number of reticulocytes by 2 times;
- hemoglobin level increase by 10 g / l.
After 1-2 months, the hemoglobin level should return to normal simultaneously with the disappearance of the symptoms of anemia (fatigue, brittle nails, hair loss). In this case, treatment should continue for another 2-4 months to achieve normal serum and cellular ferritin levels.
Vitamins to raise hemoglobin
In some cases, an effective means to increase hemoglobin are injections of vitamin B12, the deficiency of which can develop in the elderly, as well as in the presence of the following diseases:
- oncological diseases;
- malabsorption syndrome;
- worm infestation.
To normalize hemoglobin levels in B12 deficiency, a full course of intravenous injections of vitamin B12 is used according to the following scheme: for the first six weeks, the drug is administered daily, then for the next three months once a week. In the case of irreversible disorders of vitamin absorption, injections are prescribed once a week throughout life.
Folic acid deficiency anemia also leads to a decrease in hemoglobin and is more common in men and women aged 20-30 years due to veganism, the inability to assimilate folic acid, alcohol abuse, and the use of anticonvulsants.
Replenishment of folic acid deficiency is carried out throughout the month with daily injections of vitamin B9. In severe cases, when the absorption of acid from food and tablets is not possible, a prophylactic dose of vitamin B9 is applied to permanently fill the deficit.