Allergic urticaria is a skin reaction to an allergen. The main symptom is large blisters that look like insect bites or nettle burns. Accompanied by this disease severe itching, so the treatment should begin in a short time.
Since the rash can have a variety of causes, this disease is one of the most difficult to diagnose. In this regard, the patient undergoes a thorough examination, prescribed by the allergist-immunologist. Particularly difficult is chronic urticaria lasting more than 2 months.
Younger children are the most vulnerable group for this disease. Over the years, the reactions of this kind have been muffled considerably, but what is remarkable: the thirty-year age is a fatal moment for people who are prone to allergies. Such age surprises are especially relevant for the female population.
Urticaria is most susceptible to people who have other allergy symptoms (bronchial asthma, hay fever, food allergies and
The main causes of urticaria:
- heat, cold, pressure, sweat;
- some drugs, such as aspirin, codeine, ibuprofen, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- some food additives, such as dyes and preservatives.
In 20% of cases, allergic urticaria is associated with the immune system’s reaction to food and contact with plants and animals. In the remaining 80% of patients, it is quite difficult to determine the causes of urticaria, blood tests and skin tests, as a rule, give negative results.
Allergy in the form of urticaria can manifest itself with varying degrees of severity and under different circumstances, on the basis of which doctors have identified several of its types.
- Acute – characterized by a sudden onset, the appearance of itching and burning of the skin, and then the appearance of blisters and hyperemia. The name is associated with the coincidence of symptoms of nettle burns. Blisters can be large and small. Elements can merge, acquiring giant sizes. In such cases, there is a violation of the general condition with the advent of fever, chills.
- Chronic – manifestations bother the patient for a long time. However, they are not so pronounced, and sometimes patients do not immediately notice them, which delays the moment of seeking help.
- Quincke edema – occurs in an acute form, it is also called a giant urticaria. It makes itself felt suddenly. A limited swelling appears on the body, which seizes the genitals or face. In the area of edema, the skin acquires dense elasticity, becomes white or pink. The sore spot is constantly itching, there is a burning sensation. After a few hours or days, the swelling goes away on its own. If the case is severe, then death is possible.
- Recurrent – characterized by the appearance of blisters on different areas with different time intervals. Clinically, in addition to skin manifestations, weakness, malaise, headache, fever, myalgia, arthralgia may occur.
Symptoms of allergic urticaria
In the case of urticaria, the main symptom that distinguishes it from other types of allergic reactions is the appearance of skin blisters (see photo).
In its appearance, the blister resembles a protruding skin like a trace of an insect bite or a burn left by nettle. The affected place is accompanied by itching. There may be redness. Most often, the rash has a symmetrical character.
The number of wheals is also individual, it varies from a few spots to hundreds. In severe cases, there are so many spots that they merge and cover the entire skin. Symptoms such as vomiting and nausea are extremely rare. They indicate irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which is very dangerous.
How to treat allergic urticaria
Success in treating allergic urticaria is 90% dependent on whether it is possible to identify the cause – a specific allergen, and eliminate it. With the constant presence of an irritant factor in the blood there will be a sufficient amount of immunoglobulins that neutralize them. This means that the rash will not go away.
How to treat allergic urticaria at its first manifestations:
- Eliminate the allergen that caused the inadequate immune response of the body. In the case of drugs, the patient is given a lifelong ban on the appropriate group of drugs.
- Intravenous calcium gluconate to relieve swelling.
- Start taking drugs that block the production of histamines.
- In case of chronic urticaria, autolymphocytotherapy is prescribed – six times subcutaneous administration of the patient’s own lymphocytes.
Compliance with all treatment measures eliminates the symptoms of acute urticaria. There are no traces on the skin, swelling of the mucous membranes and itching disappear.
If the urticaria causes many factors or contact with a significant factor cannot be excluded, then it is necessary to take antihistamines (claritin, diazolin, telfast). For especially severe forms of urticaria, glucocorticoid drugs are used briefly.
Locally, ointments based on zinc oxide (zinc paste, cyndol) are used to reduce itching and rashes; in more severe cases, the doctor may prescribe ointments and creams containing corticosteroids, for example, advantan, elokom.
Diet is extremely important for recovery
It is possible to treat allergic urticaria by eliminating certain foods from your diet, in other words, the patient needs a strict diet.
Which products should be removed, is determined empirically: it is necessary to exclude one or the other product, while monitoring the body’s response.
Below is a list of foods that most often cause an allergic reaction:
- meat, offal, eggs, animal fat;
- fish, fish eggs, shrimps, mussels, squids;
- tomatoes, celery, potatoes, radishes, pumpkin, sea kale, mushrooms;
- sharp cheeses, pickled cheese;
- nuts, berries, citrus;
- exotic fruits, all fruits are red;
- canned food, crackers, chips, hamburgers, instant soups;
- chocolate, coffee with flavors (dry cream, amaretto, caramel);
- spicy foods and spices (onion, garlic, cilantro, mint, mustard, pepper).
Hypoallergenic diet is always chosen individually, and lasts from three weeks for adults and not more than one week for children.