Preparations based on interferon

AMIXIN ® is a modern antiviral and immunostimulating agent; promotes the formation in the body of four types of interferons (alpha, beta, gamma and lambda).

Antiviral drugs with immunostimulating activity can be recommended for the treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections. With their help, you can reduce the time of the disease and prevent the development of complications.

Acceptance of the antiviral drug AMIXIN ® is possible at any stage of a cold or flu, as recommended by a doctor.

In the cold and flu season, taking antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs helps reduce the chance of illness.

AMIXIN ® is a modern antiviral and immunomodulatory drug used in the complex therapy of a number of viral infectious diseases, including influenza, ARVI and herpes.

Immunomodulatory drugs are one of the important components of the complex therapy of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections.

Coping with viral infections can be very difficult. But in our very body, there is an “integrated” antiviral defense system. These are special substances, interferons. To help the body cope with the disease, medicine has created drugs – artificial interferons and stimulants of their synthesis, which will be discussed in this article.

Functions and mechanism of action of interferon in the human body

Interferon is a protein molecule that provides antiviral immunity. At the same time, it has non-specific activity, that is, they act not on the causative agent of a particular disease, but on all viral particles in general. Generally speaking, interferon is a universal defender of the body, which begins to act even before the rest of the immunity links are involved [1]. Interferon preparations are used even in oncology therapy: they suppress tumor growth.

Cells produce this protective protein in response to viruses, bacteria, tumor cells or their metabolic products. Stimulating their production can and drugs – interferon inducers. The molecules of the latter, entering the blood and intercellular fluid, bind to the receptors of infected or damaged cells. They trigger a complex cascade of reactions leading to the formation of specific proteins. As a result, the cell stops reproducing viral particles, splits their genetic structure, and the surface of this cell becomes less permeable to intracellular parasites.

In addition to acting on the infected cells themselves, interferons stimulate the activity of other immunity units, control the inflammatory response [2], and can even protect the body from tumors. This property is actively studied and already used to combat certain types of cancer [3].

Types of human interferon

Interferon molecules differ in their genetic structure, type of cell receptors on which they act, even in the regions of DNA that encode their composition. All interferons are divided into 3 types.

  • TO the first type include alpha interferon, which has 13 different structural variants, as well as beta, kappa, epsilon, and omega.
  • Second type represented by only one type, gamma interferon.
  • Relatively recently, in 2002, it was opened and third type molecules, lambda-. This is a separate family of interferons, which differs from all previous genetic structure and even the type of receptors with which they interact. But in terms of their biological activity, lambda interferons are very similar to the first type [4].

Do not treat interferons as a panacea for all ills. First, some viruses can suppress the formation of specific proteins inside infected cells, which significantly reduces the effectiveness of antiviral protection.

Secondly, this is only the first line of defense, which stimulates other links of immunity and temporarily suspends the advance of the enemy in the body, giving time for the production of immune cells and antibodies.

Third, the main mechanism of action of interferon is the suppression of development and division. At physiological doses, this effect controls the multiplication of viruses and tumor cells. But with the introduction of significant doses of alien substances can suffer and their own body tissues, which are quickly updated. First of all – blood cells.

Therefore, before starting treatment with interferon preparations, it is necessary to carefully study the benefits and possible harm from taking them.

The use of interferon analogues in medicine

Interferon-based drugs have proven to be effective [5] in the treatment of a wide range of diseases: herpes infections, HPV, acute and chronic forms of viral hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, influenza, and many other viral and bacterial infections. Interferon is also used in the treatment of cancer, as well as AIDS. And despite the fact that, by the standards of medicine, it was recently opened. This happened in 1957 when conducting experiments on mice. Scientists noticed that animals infected with one virus became immune to another viral disease. This phenomenon was called interference, and the substances that contributed to it – interferons. It turned out that interferons are produced not only in mice, but also in all mammals, including humans. Began to study the possibility of industrial production of substances with antiviral effect.

However, for a long time the use of interferon was limited due to the imperfection of the procedure for their preparation. It was difficult, expensive and inefficient to isolate this substance from the blood of a human donor.

In 1980, for the first time in Japan, a specially grown culture of lymphoblastic cells was used for the production of interferon. And in 1981, in the United States, instead of human cells, a culture of yeast was used. With the help of genetic engineering in the genome introduced a gene that encodes the production of interferon molecules. This has greatly simplified the production of the drug [8].

According to the production method, there are four main varieties of this preparation: leukocyte, lymphoblastoid, recombinant and pegylated.

Leukocyte interferon get from blood donors. In order to enhance the production of the necessary substances, the cells are pre-stimulated most often with the help of non-pathogenic viruses – such particles that cannot cause the disease, but are perceived by the cells of the immune system as signal.

After receiving such a drug is purified and concentrated. It may include all types of interferons and other biologically active substances. This is both a plus and a minus. The advantage of this drug is its high potential for biological action. The disadvantage is the high probability of side effects with intramuscular injection.

Lymphoblastoid interferon they are not obtained from a human donor, but from a culture of lymphoblastic cells, which are also treated with substances that stimulate the immune response. Such drugs contain a certain ratio of different types of interferon and not so often cause side effects.

Recombinant drugs are obtained from a culture of bacteria or fungi cells into which a portion of the human gene has been specifically introduced. The interferon obtained in this way may differ slightly in its structure from the “natural” human one. Such drugs retain antiviral activity, but stimulation of immunity with their help is difficult to achieve [9].

Pegylated, or Peg interferons These are recombinant protein molecules that are linked to polyethylene glycol. This compound has increased the life of interferon in the body.

Preparations based on interferon

PEG is soluble in water, does not enter into biological reactions in the body and does not cause an immune response. When PEG is attached, the interferon molecule significantly increases in size. And this, in turn, increases the half-life of the drug.

Interferon-based preparations: indications and contraindications for their use

Combining interferons into homogeneous groups according to the method of preparation, forms of release and indications will not work. Each drug has its own characteristics of use, effectiveness in certain diseases. Depending on the degree of purification and other factors, some drugs with the same type of immunoglobulin can be used only topically, and some can be used in the form of injections.

For example, such drugs as Inferon and Alfaferon belong to the group of leukocyte interferon. In this case, “Inferon” [11], according to the instructions, is used intramuscularly for unspecified viral diseases and for immunotherapy. “Alfaferon” [12] is also injected into the muscle, but it is already used to treat hepatitis, mycosis and even some oncological diseases. And human leukocyte interferon [13] is used for topical administration, instillation into the nose and inhalation.

Therefore, when choosing an interferon drug, one should focus not only on the general characteristics of a group of substances, but primarily on the doctor’s recommendations and instructions for use of a particular drug.

Interferon in the form of injections is used for systemic diseases such as hepatitis, tumors or multiple sclerosis. The drug in the form of nasal drops is suitable for the treatment of rhinosinusitis and the prevention of SARS. Drops in the eyes will help with conjunctivitis. Suppositories can be used for many diseases, including children. A gel is suitable for lubricating the nose or skin.

At present, one of the most homogeneous groups is pegylated interferons. There are two main classes of drugs with proven efficacy [14] – peginterferon alfa-2a and peginterferon alfa-2b. The representative of the first class – “Pegasys” [15], the second – “PegIntron” [16]. Both drugs are used subcutaneously once a week and are used only for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B and C.

Recombinant interferon is one of the most numerous drug groups in the trade names. [17] This includes such drugs as Referon, Viferon, Ingaron, Interferal, and others. These drugs have various forms for local use and for injection. Each drug in the instructions has its own list of indications, but in general it is viral and bacterial infections.

Interferons protect the body from viruses, bacteria and tumor cells. They have a complex biological effect. But modern medicine has learned to create similar substances and use them. However, the selection of a suitable drug is a task that only a doctor can solve.

What is interferon inductors

There are drugs that do not just add to the body portion of interferons, but stimulate the growth of the body’s own protective proteins. Such drugs are called interferon inducers. Some drugs stimulate the production of certain interferons, while others enhance the formation of all types of interferons. The drugs of the latter group include Amixin. The active ingredient of Amixin is tilorone, whose main function in the body is to stimulate the production of interferon [18]. The compound has been used in clinical practice for more than 30 years and is one of the most studied interferon inducers [19]. It is indicated for the prevention and treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections, as well as the treatment of herpes infections (as part of complex therapy).

The advantages of this drug – the maximum production of interferon in the first day from the start of the reception and activation of four types of interferon. An increase in the concentration of interferons in individual organs can be achieved after 4 hours.

All interferon inductors have individual characteristics, indications and contraindications. Therefore, the drug must be chosen carefully, only after reading the instructions. With extreme caution you need to approach the choice of medication, if it needs to be taken by children. For children, there are separate forms of release.

And, of course, you can never self-medicate. Any drugs should be taken only in consultation with the doctor.

  • 1.9 Rafale

Interferon, administered from the outside, can cause a kind of laziness of the body: why produce something yourself when you can get from drugs? Therefore, for the treatment and prevention of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections, interferon inducers are more justified, which help to produce our own interferon. Also, do not get involved in the use of tablets or drops containing the finished interferon. And even better – to stimulate the body in natural ways. Temper, actively move, eat foods rich in vitamins and minerals: cabbage, garlic, oatmeal, honey, raspberries, nuts.

Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Leave a Reply