The glandular fibrous polyp is a benign neoplasm, which is formed on the mucous membrane of the uterus and consists of glandular and connective cells. This neoplasm should always be cured, otherwise the risk of malignant transformation is increased.
Causes and symptoms
A glandular fibrous polyp is a benign tumor that is localized in the uterus
In the glandular fibrous polyp, the formation has a glandular epithelium and overgrown areas of the uterine mucosa. Such education is often diagnosed in older people and can be observed in adulthood.
Such a polyp has a pink or burgundy color and a variety of shapes. The formation is attached to the tissue with the help of the leg, which is supplied with blood vessels.
The processes occurring in the endometrium, depend on the concentration of hormones in the female body. The main reason for the development of pathology is hormonal imbalance. The risk of polyp formation is increased with a lack of progesterone and an excess of estrogen. Against this background, focal changes in the endometrium appear. Over several menstrual cycles, the polyp increases in size.
The following factors also contribute to the development of a polyp:
- Inflammatory processes in the genitals.
- Infectious diseases.
- Abortions and injuries.
- Metabolic disorders.
- Diseases of the thyroid gland.
Hereditary predisposition, the use of certain drugs, the long-term use of the intrauterine device can affect the development of a glandular fibrous polyp.
In addition, if at the time of birth clots of the placenta remained inside, then in the future they are replaced by connective tissue from which later a polyp is formed.
Tamoxifen blocks receptors that are responsible for sensitivity to sex hormones, so some women associate the formation of a polyp with the use of this particular drug. With the formation of a polyp at the initial stage, clinical manifestations are absent and appear later.
The following symptoms are characteristic of a glandular polyp:
- Pain during menstruation.
- Blood secretions outside menstruation and after menopause.
- Pain during intercourse.
- Violation of the menstrual cycle.
- Bleeding after intercourse.
Symptoms increase with increasing polyp size. With these symptoms, be sure to consult a doctor to avoid serious consequences.
What is dangerous polyp?
Polyp can cause endometrial cancer
Pathological formation in the uterus is dangerously possible complications:
- Often a woman fails to conceive a child at reproductive age. Polyps with a large size block the entrance to the cervix, which causes infertility.
- A woman may complain of irregular menstruation and loss of large amounts of blood during menstruation. This causes anemia.
- A woman may refuse sex because of the pain caused by large polyps.
- The greatest danger of a glandular fibrous polyp is if it is reborn into a malignant tumor.
- If a woman becomes pregnant with a polyp, then it can lead to detachment of the placenta. At injury of a polyp with growth of a fruit emergence of bloody discharges is possible. Often, polyps during pregnancy resolve themselves.
Pathology can be diagnosed using ultrasound
If a woman is given the discomfort of the above symptoms, it is important to consult a gynecologist. The doctor during the examination can detect some education on the cervix, but it is difficult to determine polyps in the endometrium by palpation and with the help of a gynecological mirror. The gynecologist will take a Pap smear and order an additional examination.
For a more accurate diagnosis is necessary to conduct a comprehensive survey. For this purpose, instrumental methods are prescribed:
- Ultrasound. Ultrasound diagnosis is one of the most common and informative research methods. During pelvic ultrasound, you can detect the expansion and thickening of the endometrium. This method is not always informative for some reason. It is impossible to determine the structure of a polyp, to differentiate a neoplasm from fibroids, adenomyosis. The polyps of the glandular structure are similar in structure to the endometrium, therefore such polyps are poorly visualized.
- Hysteroscopy. Using hysteroscopy, you can accurately determine the endometrial polyp. During the procedure it is also possible to remove it. If necessary, perform a biopsy of the cervix, which will eliminate the degeneration into a malignant neoplasm.
- Metrography. This is an additional technique by which you can see the tumor under the influence of X-rays.
Disease treatment methods
The most common treatment is to remove the polyp.
Treatment of glandular-fibrous education can be carried out in two ways: medication and surgery.
If the polyp is small, then a drug treatment is indicated:
- Oral contraceptives are usually prescribed, such as Regulon, Yarina, Janine, etc. These drugs are taken in a specific pattern for a long period. Typically, these drugs are prescribed to women under 35 years of age. Persons over the age of 35 are prescribed gestagens in the form of Norkolut, Duphaston, etc.
- If a woman is diagnosed with an inflammatory process, use antibacterial drugs. In the period of menopause, it is recommended to take Zoladex, Diferelin, etc.
- Symptomatic therapy involves the use of painkillers: Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Paracetamol, etc.
If the drug treatment has not brought positive results, then surgical resection is performed. During hysteroscopy, the doctor examines the surface of the uterus cavity in detail. This will identify abnormalities in the structure of the uterus.
When performing hysteroscopy using a coagulating loop, a polyp is removed, and if they are multiple, then they are scraped out.
In order to avoid re-formation of polyps and possible complications after manipulation at the place of formation, cauterization is done. In the future, the material is sent for histological examination. After the procedure, the appearance of bloody discharge, spasmodic pain. After a few days, the woman should have an ultrasound scan to assess the quality of the hysteroscopy.
More information about endometrial polyps can be found in the video:
You can remove a polyp with a laser. This manipulation will not leave scars and scars on the uterus and, moreover, will not affect reproductive function. After removal of the polyp, hormone therapy is indicated. At the time of treatment, the woman must observe sexual peace, carefully carry out hygiene,
Since bleeding is observed after the operation, the woman should not take hot baths, go to the sauna, take aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, and also lift heavy things. In addition, it is forbidden to douche.
Prognosis and complications
Timely and correct treatment – a favorable prognosis!
In order to avoid the formation of polyps in the uterus, it is necessary to monitor the health and adhere to the following recommendations:
- Treat infectious and inflammatory diseases.
- For preventive purposes, visit the gynecologist 2 times a year.
- Avoid possible injury to the uterus (abortion, scraping, etc.).
- Avoid casual sex.
- Prevent unwanted pregnancy.
- In addition, it is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, eat correctly and fully, monitor weight, move more.
To avoid complications, you should promptly consult a doctor with the existing symptoms. It is important to remember that polyps can form again, even with successful timely treatment. Frequent relapses increase the likelihood of a malignant tumor.
These simple recommendations will help prevent the development of diseases of the female reproductive system, including polyps. The prognosis after surgery is favorable. If curettage was performed, then an unsuccessful operation may contribute to the development of complications.
Perhaps the development of the inflammatory process in the uterus, perforation of the uterus, the formation of a hematometer.
After removal of the glandular fibrous polyp and undergoing a course of hormonal therapy, you can prepare yourself or with the help of IVF. Planning a pregnancy is recommended no earlier than one month after hysteroscopy.
If pregnancy occurs, it proceeds without complications. However, it should be remembered that during pregnancy, women are prone to the emergence of new growths. They do not pose any danger to the fetus if you follow all the recommendations of the doctor.