Vaccination schedule for children (vaccination schedule) 2018 in Russia provides for the protection of children and infants up to one year from the most dangerous diseases. Some vaccinations for children are performed directly at the maternity hospital, the rest can be done at the district clinic in accordance with the vaccination schedule.
[flat_ab id = 1 ″] [flat_ab id = 2 ″]
- First vaccination against viral hepatitis B
- Vaccination against tuberculosis
- Second vaccine against viral hepatitis B
- Third vaccination against viral hepatitis B (risk groups)
- First vaccine against pneumococcal infection
- The first vaccine against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus
- First polio vaccination
- First vaccination against hemophilic infection (risk groups)
- The second vaccine against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus
- Second vaccination against hemophilic infection (risk groups)
- Second polio vaccine
- Second vaccine against pneumococcal infection
- The third vaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus
- Third vaccine against viral hepatitis B
- Third polio vaccine
- Third vaccine against hemophilic infection (risk group)
- Vaccination against measles, rubella, mumps
- Fourth vaccine against viral hepatitis B (risk groups)
- Revaccination against pneumococcal infection
- First revaccination against poliomyelitis
- First revaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus
- Revaccination against hemophilic infection (risk groups)
- Second revaccination against poliomyelitis
- Revaccination against measles, rubella, mumps
- Second revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus
- Revaccination against tuberculosis
- Third revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus
- Third revaccination against poliomyelitis
- Revaccination against diphtheria, tetanus – every 10 years from the moment of the last revaccination
Basic vaccinations up to a year
The general table of vaccinations by age from birth to 14 years involves the organization of the maximum protection of the child’s body from infancy and the support of immunity in adolescence. At the age of 12-14, planned revaccination of poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, and parotiditis is performed. Measles, rubella and parotitis can be combined into one vaccine without compromising quality. Vaccination against polio is performed separately, live vaccine in droplets or inactivated with a shot in the shoulder.
- Hepatitis B. The first vaccination is carried out in the hospital. Then comes revaccination at 1 month and at 6 months.
- Tuberculosis. BCG is usually given at the maternity hospital in the first week of a child’s life. Subsequent revaccinations are carried out in preparation for school and in high school.
- DTP or analogues. Combination vaccine to protect the baby from whooping cough, tetanus and diphtheria. In the imported vaccine analogues, the CIB component is added to protect against inflammatory infections and meningitis. The first vaccination is performed at 3 months, then according to the schedule of vaccinations, depending on the selected vaccine.
- Hemophilic infection or HIB component. May be part of the vaccine Pentaxim or run separately.
- Polio. Infants are vaccinated at 3 months. Re-vaccination at 4 and 6 months.
- At 12 months, children receive a routine measles, rubella and parotitis vaccination.
How to vaccinate children under one year
The first year of a child’s life requires maximum protection. Vaccinations minimize the risk of infant mortality, forcing the infant’s body to produce antibodies to bacterial and viral infections.
A child’s own immunity up to a year is too weak to withstand dangerous diseases, the innate immunity weakens by about 3-6 months. A baby may receive a certain amount of antibodies with breast milk, but this is not enough to counter the really dangerous diseases. It is at this time that the child’s immunity must be strengthened with timely vaccination. The standard vaccination schedule for children is designed to take into account all possible risks and it is desirable to follow it.
[flat_ab id = 5 ″] [flat_ab id = 6 ″]
After a series of vaccinations, the child may have a fever. Be sure to include paracetamol in the nursery first aid kit to reduce the temperature. High temperature indicates the work of the protective systems of the body, but does not affect the efficiency of antibody production. The temperature must be shot down immediately. For infants up to 6 months, rectal suppositories with paracetamol can be used. Older children can take antipyretic in syrup. Paracetamol has maximum efficacy, but in some cases, even with individual features, does not work. In this case, you need to apply baby antipyretic with another active substance.
Do not limit your child’s drinking after vaccination; take a convenient bottle of water or soothing tea with you.
Vaccinations in front of kindergarten
In kindergarten, a child is in contact with a significant number of other children. It has been proven that it is in a child’s environment that viruses and bacterial infections spread with maximum speed. To prevent the spread of dangerous diseases, it is necessary to perform vaccinations by age and provide documented evidence of vaccinations.
In addition to the mandatory vaccinations, it is recommended to perform additional ones:
- Flu vaccine. Performed annually, significantly reduces the likelihood of getting influenza in the autumn-winter period.
- Vaccination against pneumococcal infection. It is performed once, the vaccination must be performed at least one month before visiting the children’s institution.
- Vaccination against viral meningitis. Runs from 18 months.
- Vaccination against hemophilic infection. From 18 months, with a weakened immunity, vaccination is possible from 6 months.
A vaccine schedule for children is usually developed by an infectious diseases specialist. In good children’s vaccination centers, it is obligatory to examine babies on the day of vaccination to identify contraindications. It is undesirable to carry out vaccinations at elevated temperature and exacerbation of chronic diseases, diathesis, herpes.
Vaccination in toll centers does not reduce some of the pain with the introduction of adsorbed vaccines, but you can choose more complete sets that provide protection against more diseases for 1 shot. The selection of combination vaccines provides maximum protection with minimal injury. This applies to Pentaxim-type DTP vaccines and the like. In public clinics such a choice is often not possible due to the high cost of polyvalent vaccines.
Vaccination schedule recovery
In case of violation of the standard terms of vaccination, you can create your own individual schedule of vaccinations on the recommendation of an infectious diseases specialist. Vaccine features and standard vaccination or emergency vaccination schemes are taken into account.
For hepatitis B, the standard scheme is 0-1-6. This means that after the first vaccination, the second follows in a month, then revaccination follows in six months.
Vaccinations for children with diseases of the immune system and HIV are performed exclusively by inactivated vaccines or recombinant drugs with the substitution of pathogenic protein.
Why do I need to make mandatory vaccinations by age
An unvaccinated child who is constantly among the vaccinated children will most likely not get sick precisely because of collective immunity. The virus simply does not have enough carriers to spread and further epidemiological contamination. But is it ethical to use the immunity of other children to protect your own child? Yes, your child will not be pricked with a medical needle, he will not experience discomfort after vaccination, fever, weakness, will not whine and cry, unlike other children after vaccination. But when contacting unvaccinated children, for example, from countries without compulsory vaccination, it is the unvaccinated child who is at the greatest risk and can get sick.
Immunity does not get stronger, developing in a “natural way” and child mortality rates are a clear confirmation of this fact. Modern medicine can not oppose viruses absolutely nothing, except for prevention and vaccinations that form the body’s resistance to infection and disease. Only symptoms and effects of viral diseases are treated.
Only vaccination is effective against viruses in general. Perform the necessary vaccinations by age to preserve the health of your family. Vaccination of adults is also desirable, especially with an active lifestyle and contact with people.
Is it possible to combine vaccines
In some clinics practicing the simultaneous implementation of vaccinations against polio and DPT. In fact, this practice is undesirable, especially when using a live polio vaccine. The decision about the possible combination of vaccines can only be taken by an infectious diseases specialist.
What is revaccination
Revaccination is the repeated administration of a vaccine to maintain the level of antibodies to a disease in the blood and to strengthen the immune system. Usually revaccination is easy and without any special reactions from the body. The only thing that can bother you is a microtrauma at the vaccination site. Together with the active substance of the vaccine is introduced about
The need for the introduction of additional substances due to the action of most vaccines. It is necessary that the active components enter the blood gradually and evenly over a long time. It is necessary for the formation of proper and sustainable immunity. A small bruise, hematoma, bloating is possible at the vaccination site. This is normal for any intramuscular injections.
How is immunity formed
The formation of natural immunity occurs as a result of a viral disease and the production of appropriate antibodies in the body that contribute to resistance to infection. Immunity is not always developed after a single disease. For the formation of a stable immunity may require repeated illness or a sequential cycle of vaccinations. After an illness, the immunity can be greatly weakened and various complications arise, often more dangerous than the disease itself. Most often it is pneumonia, meningitis, otitis, for the treatment of which it is necessary to use strong antibiotics.
Infants protects maternal immunity, getting antibodies along with mother’s milk. It does not matter whether maternal immunity is developed through vaccinations or has a “natural” basis. But from the most dangerous diseases that form the basis of infant and infant mortality, early vaccination is necessary. Hib infection, whooping cough, hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, should be excluded from the dangers to the life of the child in the first year of life. Vaccinations form a full-fledged immunity against the majority of infections that are deadly to the infant without a disease.
Creating a natural immunity, which advocates environmentalists, takes too much time and can carry a threat to life. Vaccination contributes to the safest formation of complete immunity.
The vaccination schedule is formed taking into account age requirements, peculiarities of vaccine action. It is advisable to fit into the time intervals between vaccinations prescribed by medicine for the full formation of immunity.
In Russia, it is possible to refuse vaccination, for this it is necessary to sign the relevant documents. No one will be interested in the reasons for refusal and to vaccinate children forcibly. There may be legal restrictions on failures. There are a number of professions for which vaccinations are mandatory and the refusal of vaccinations can be considered as incompetent. Teachers, employees of children’s institutions, doctors and livestock breeders, veterinarians should be vaccinated so as not to become a source of infection.
Also, you can not refuse vaccinations during epidemics and when visiting areas declared a disaster area in connection with the epidemic. The list of diseases, with epidemics of which vaccination or even urgent vaccination is carried out without the consent of the person, is fixed by law. First of all it is natural or black smallpox and tuberculosis. In the 1980s, from the list of compulsory vaccinations for children, smallpox vaccination was excluded. It was assumed complete disappearance of the causative agent and the absence of foci of infection. However, at least 3 focal outbreaks of the disease have occurred in Siberia and in China since the moment of refusal to vaccinate. It may make sense to have a smallpox vaccination in a private clinic. Black smallpox vaccines are ordered in a special way, separately. For livestock breeders, vaccination against black pox is mandatory.
All doctors recommend, if possible, abide by the standard schedule of vaccinations for children and maintain immunity with timely vaccinations for adults. Recently, people have become more attentive to their health and attend vaccination centers with the whole family. Especially before traveling together, traveling. Vaccinations and a developed active immunity contribute to improving the quality of life.