Pancreatic Atrophy

Diseases of the pancreas in dogs in recent times are quite common. However, their diagnosis in the early stages is almost impossible, it is difficult because it is responsible for the hormonal and enzymatic support of the digestive process. Therefore, it is possible to detect shortcomings in its work only after violations have led to organic disorders of all organs and systems. It is impossible to make a diagnosis on your own. Modern diagnostic methods can detect abnormalities in the pancreas using blood tests.

Virtually all disorders in the pancreas in dogs lead to very serious consequences, therefore, the sooner the first symptoms become noticeable, the faster you should consult a veterinarian to establish the diagnosis and treatment.

The main features that are worth paying attention to:

  • frequent unreasonable diarrhea foamy structure with a pungent odor
  • irrepressible appetite, accompanied by diarrhea and sharp weight loss
  • the dog can eat its own feces
  • general weakness and constant urge to go to the toilet

Most of the disorders of the pancreas are chronic and are treated with regular therapy, with regular examination by a doctor. This is especially true of hereditary disorders. Sometimes pancreatitis can be cured only promptly. To let this disease on drift can not be, in extreme cases, it can be fatal.

The pancreas is located between the sheets of the mesentery of the duodenum and stomach, has a right and left lobe. Her excretory ducts open into the duodenum. The mass of the gland is 10-100 g, which corresponds to 0.13-0.36% of the body weight of the dog. The endocrine portion of the gland is only 3% and is formed by cells of the islets of Langerhans. Alpha cells secrete the hormone glucagon, beta cells – insulin. In addition, this part of the gland produces lipocaine, vagotonin and other hormone-like substances.

Most of the gland has an exocrine function and produces digestive juice containing enzymes trypsinogens, chymotrypsinogens, proelastase, ribonuclease, amylase, lipase, which are involved in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats from food. Due to the fact that most of the gland is an excreting organ, the digestive function in the first place suffers as the pathological process develops. Only in a chronic disease islet is involved (or in the case of its specific damage). Then the endocrine function of the gland is disturbed.

The four main forms of pancreatic lesion are described: acute pancreatitis, chronic sclerosing pancreatitis (pancreozyrosis), hereditary atrophy, and insulinoma. Insulinoma and atrophy occur in German Shepherd Dogs, in isolated cases in hounds and Giant Schnauzers. In dogs of other breeds, chronic sclerosing pancreatitis occurs predominantly, often manifesting diabetes symptoms than exocrine insufficiency. Such selectivity in the occurrence of acute pancreatitis is not. The frequency of occurrence of pancreatic diseases in German shepherds is 8 per 1000, and in other breeds, 3 per 10,000.

Exocrine insufficiency

The pancreas due to the complex anatomical localization is difficult to conventional physical methods of research. Her condition can be judged only by the violation of the functions of other bodies associated with it. Insufficiency of the gland function can manifest itself both in the lack of enzymes and in the inability of the digestive juice to maintain an alkaline pH in the intestine. Under these conditions, normal intestinal cavitary digestion is disturbed, microbes in the thin section multiply vigorously, intestinal dysbacteriosis occurs, further aggravating the digestive processes. Violate parietal enzymatic digestion (maldigestion syndrome) and absorption of products of enzymatic hydrolysis (malabsorption syndrome). Depletion increases with increased appetite (malnutrition syndrome), the function of other endocrine glands is impaired.

Symptoms

Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency is characterized by: polydipsia and polyuria, vomiting, flatulence (discharge of fetid gases), pancreatogenic diarrhea (fetid, with increased bowel movement and an increase in fecal volume, which is not amenable to therapy), pancreatogenic chair (polyfocalia – a voluminous chair, a large, non-therapeutic stool); colorless nostril masses with a sour odor, oily shine and undigested food residues, sometimes mixed with blood), polyphagia up to coprophagy, flatulence of all intestinal sections, hyperglycemia, glycosuria, ipoholesterinemiya, increased amylase indicators in the blood serum, steatorrhea, kreatoreya, amylorrhea, acidification of faeces.

Diagnosis

Put during the life of the animal is not always possible. If the examination reveals the symptoms listed, there is reason to suspect pancreatic disease. Ascites in combination with hyperglycemia also indicates the involvement of the pancreas in the pathological process. For greater certainty, one or two functional tests are performed when making a diagnosis.

Pancreatic Atrophy

Differential diagnosis. Symptoms of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency should be distinguished from polyphagia caused by chronic enteritis and various types of malabsorption. Polyphagy with progressive cachexia is characteristic of pancreatopathy. The activity and performance of the animal for a long time can persist, which is not characteristic of chronic enteritis and hepatopathies (rapid increase in depression, temporary or prolonged loss of appetite). Pancreopathy is also distinguished by concomitant bradycardia; in contrast to enterocolitis, bowel movement is increased, but tenesmus is absent.

Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatic necrosis caused by enzymatic autolysis of tissues with hemorrhagic soaking. Etiology is not precisely established. Acute pancreatitis occurs when bile enters the lumen of the gland ducts. An important role is played by the activation of proteolytic enzymes in the gland itself, as a result of which enzymatic digestion (autolysis) of its parenchyma with hemorrhages and fat necrosis occurs.

Pancreatic Atrophy

Symptoms

ABOUTSevere pancreatitis is more common in females with impaired fat metabolism. The disease begins suddenly after eating and develops within a few hours or days. In mild cases, especially weakness, apathy, vomiting, fetid diarrhea, fever, and sometimes anemia, jaundice, ascites, and other symptoms of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are primarily troubling.

Severe cases of the disease (acute necrosis of the pancreas) are manifested by severe pains quickly leading to the development of collapse and shock. The pains are accompanied by agonizing vomiting, drooling and bradycardia. The animal adopts a forced “prayer” pose: the front paws are extended forward, the chest lies on the floor, and the back part of the body is raised. Palpation detect acute pain of the abdominal wall. In the blood and urine in the early hours of the disease revealed an elevated amylase content. However, with necrotizing pancreatitis, the amylase content may be normal or even reduced. In these cases, a decrease in the amount of calcium in the blood and an increase in the activity of aspartate-minotransferase have a certain diagnostic value.

Acute pancreatitis lasts for several days and may result in complete recovery or go into chronic recurrent pancreatitis. In severe cases, death may occur in the initial period of the disease with symptoms of collapse, shock and peritonitis.

Treatment

It provides for: 1) fighting shock — intravenous drip infusion of a 5% glucose solution, dextrans, blood or plasma transfusion; 2) creation of physiological dormancy of the pancreas: full starvation within 2-4 days, provided that parenteral administration of alvezin; 3) inactivation of proteolytic enzymes by antienzyme preparations (pride, contrycal, etc.); 4) suppression of pancreatic secretion and elimination of pain (atropine and analgin with seduxenom); 5) prevention of secondary infection (antibiotics).

If acute pancreatitis is suspected, it is better to be safe and immediately begin intensive treatment, as in the case of a diagnostic error it will not hurt, and being late with the appointment of therapy will no longer save the patient’s life. When there is an improvement in the condition of the animal, it is recommended to start feeding slowly with high-quality proteins and fat – several times a day in small portions.

Pancreatic Atrophy

An atrophied gland does not look thicker than a parchment sheet, transparent, but retains its ducts. Mainly German shepherds are sick. Etiopathogenesis is unknown. Animals are born with a normal pancreas. Atrophy of it and, as a result, percutaneous insufficiency develops in the first months of life, but sometimes in middle age. Factors causing atrophy of the gland have not been established.

Symptoms

Already characterized by a history of the disease, indicating a severe hunger of the animal until the eating of their own feces and, despite this, progressive emaciation. Along with the general symptoms of semiotics gland insufficiency, the diseases complement the following data: there is an increased bowel movement, the amount of feces is greatly increased, they are excreted by large single or multiple small scattered heaps, have a moist luster, are foamy in texture, with an unpleasant sour smell and depending on the content these fat colorless gray or clay-yellow. In such a pancreatic stool, one can find undigested cereal grains or potato pieces. At times, feces can be decorated. In the abdominal cavity sounds are splashed rumbling, palpating the large intestine filled with fecal masses. Bradycardia is expressed. The coat of a sick animal is disheveled, it does not hold well, and the skin is dry and scaly.

Diagnosis

They put almost unmistakably on the combination of five symptoms: German Shepherd, sharp emaciation of the animal, indefatigable appetite, pancreatogenic chair, hypocholesterolemia.

Atrophic pancreatitis completely eliminates the reserve secretory ability of the gland. Without treatment, sick animals die.

Treatment

The main role is assigned to substitution therapy. The animal is prescribed pancreatic enzyme preparations (pancreatin, panzinorm), painkillers and antibiotics. Diet. It is recommended to give only lean meat and no fats and carbohydrates. With treatment failure, eutanasia is suggested.

Insulinoma

A hormonally active tumor, an adenoma that develops from the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, producing an excess amount of insulin. It is very rare in German shepherds. Excessive production of insulin adenoma causes an increased destruction of glucose in the body and a state of chronic hypoglycemia.

Symptoms

Hypoglycemia leads to muscle tremor, ataxia, epileptiform seizures and, in the final stage, to hypoglycemic coma.

Diagnosis

Assume on the basis of three signs: German Shepherd, hypoglycemia below 2.8 mmol / l, epileptic-shape cramps. Differentiate from severe liver dystrophy and insufficiency of the function of the adrenal cortex. The final confirmation of the diagnosis can only serve diagnostic laparotomy.

Treatment

Upon detection, insulinomas produce partial pancreatic ectomy. Before the surgery, a therapeutic diet: 1/3 of meat and 2/3 of starch jelly, 4-6 servings per day.

Technique of operation. General anesthesia is carried out in the dorsal position of the animal, and then laparotomy along the white line in the above-umbilical region. Inspect the organs. Allocate the proportion of the gland affected by the tumor. Dissect the glandular tissue with tweezers at a distance from the tumor and expose the intralobular artery. Ligate and cross the arteries. Remove the affected part of the gland. Sew up the wound of the abdominal wall.

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