Further development of the psychology of labor and the consistent introduction of the achievements of science into practice could not but lead to the realization and recognition of the highly ambiguous role of the social environment surrounding a man-activist.
Since the 1930s, since the beginning of the formation of the “school of human relations”, scientists more and more and more convincingly speak about aggregate
one Strelkova V. Movie Master Workshop // World INCOM. 2003. № And (16), November.
social and socio-psychological determinants of human labor, among which are interpersonal relationships, psychological climate, leadership style, organizational structure, and much more.
Early 1960s marked by the emergence of a new independent branch of the psychology of labor – organizational psychologyor psychology of organizational development.
Organizational Psychologyis an applied branch of psychology that studies the main aspects of the activities and behavior of people in organizations in order to increase organizational efficiency and create favorable conditions for work, individual development and mental health of members of the organization. The subject of the study of organizational psychology is a variety of mental phenomena and the behavior of people in organizations, as well as the factors that determine them. The problem of enterprise performance in organizational psychology is considered at different levels: the enterprise as a whole, the working group and the individual [56, 65, 86, 99].
Social organizationin a broad sense, it is a consciously coordinated social entity that has defined boundaries and functions on a relatively permanent basis to achieve the common goals of the community members. The need for a scientific approach to the systemic study and solution of problems of organizations is determined by the fact that the main points of their functioning and development are ambiguous processes of interaction between people who have different goals, interests, needs, and views.
In organizational and psychological research a number of interrelated provisions are considered:
1) the behavior of individual workers depends not only on their individual characteristics, but also on the external environment, the characteristics of the organization itself and the groups operating in it;
2) the effectiveness of the organization is determined by the activities of its staff;
3) a scientific approach contributes to a more successful solution of problems of an organization arising from its development and the development of society;
4) the essence of the organization and subject of activity is historically changeable, as are the ideas about them of scientists and practitioners.
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Concept organization(from lat. organize – I inform a harmonous look, I arrange) has several basic meanings:
1) internal orderliness, consistency, interaction of more or less differentiated and autonomous parts of the whole, determining its structure;
2) a set of processes or actions leading to the formation and improvement of interconnections between parts of the whole;
3) an association of people jointly implementing a program or goal and acting on the basis of certain rules and procedures .
In the context of organizational psychology, these meanings can be viewed as thingscience (of people), her method(a set of processes and actions leading to the formation and improvement of interconnections between parts of the whole), goals and results(internal orderliness, consistency).
The concept of organization applies to biological, social, socio-technical, technical and other objects in connection with the study and management of their dynamic characteristics associated with the operation and development. Subjectorganizational psychology is primarily social organizations, among which are administrative, union, associative, differing in goals, form of education, functioning, etc. [65, 86, 99]. In their turn, large social organizations (institutions, enterprises, firms) can distinguish several of their substructures: institutional, technological, formal, informal, non-formal [56, 65].
Under structurethey understand a part of the system, such an aggregate of its components, their relations and connections, the stability of which preserves the basic properties of the system. Targeted impacts on the system to ensure and maintain its optimal functioning are called management.Management, system, structure in the theory of systems also have several basic meanings, but in the literature on the theory of organizations, the diversity of meanings of these concepts is somewhat simplified, determined by context, for example, the concepts of elements and components are usually identified.
The main characteristics of the organization include:
1) its size as a factor determining the nature of interpersonal relations of employees;
2) the complexity associated with the degree of differentiation (specialization and division of labor, levels of management hierarchy, the territorial distribution of units);
3) formalization as an expression of the need for structured control (set out in writing the rules and procedures that act as guidelines and criteria for the behavior and activities of all employees);
4) rationality as a form of streamlining a sociotechnical system, based on the logic of activity, scientific knowledge and common sense, orienting employees to solve their own problems, contributing to the achievement of a common goal;
5) a hierarchical structure reflecting the difference of powers at different management levels;
6) specialization as types of combining certain types of activities performed by different employees.
Specialization appears in two forms – as the division of labor into extremely simple elements and as specialization, involving the formation of complexes of unique knowledge and skills.
Modern organization: components and structure
It is obvious that such a complex system as a modern enterprise can be viewed in different scientific approaches, sometimes using expressive abbreviations – SOB (Situation – Organizm – Bechavior), IS (strategie, structure, staff.), 1M (money, management, marketing.). But such symbolic completeness of the analysis reflects not so much the essence of social organization as it serves educational and didactic purposes – the simplicity and expressiveness of the form of presentation of the material, the optimality of its parts (Millerian number 7 ± 2). The structure of the organization itself is often understood speculatively. The role and status of individual components are often more determined not by their actual “weight”, but by the methodological position of the researcher.
Let us take as convention a limited number of components of an organization discussed in educational literature. One of the variants of the system approach, the “U. Pareto principle (80:20),” states that a small proportion of the key components of the system determine its effectiveness.
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efficiency in general; control of 20% of significant components allows you to control the system as a whole.
Thus, the presentation of the organization as a limited composition of the main components has some advantages. However, in the past two decades there has been a tendency to view the organization as biosocial systemreflecting both some inadequacy of simple analysis schemes, and the desire of scientists to use more developed and more complex models tested in other scientific disciplines, in biology in particular. The dynamism of modern society and production technologies, the development of individual organizations and the individual himself points to the possibility and heuristic value of attracting such analogies and working concepts as birth, maturity and old age of the organization, optimal, extreme and subextreme modes of functioning, assimilation and dissimilation, external and internal environment .
A systematic approach to the organization as a social system involves the selection and analysis of the main components of its forming, as well as the relationships between them. It should be noted empiricism of many classifications. In the literature on organizational psychology, different order of reality, objective and subjective phenomena that allow the possibility of using different rating scales for their analysis are often referred to as components of an organization. The following components are often referred to as the main ones: structure, technology, personnel, tasks (labor process) ; operational core, strategic apex, or top management, middle line (middle and lower level managers), technical structure (facilitating internal coordination of activities), support staff; structure, technology, finance, management, personnel.
Under structureorganization is understood as its architectonics, structural components, their relationship, the types of connections between them, the degree of rigidity of the organizational configuration. In such a complex system as a social organization, it is possible to distinguish between different structures — formal, informal, non-formal, technological, and institutional. For example, under formal structureis understood as “a set of prescribed roles and relationships,
distribution of functions between separate divisions, distribution of power, between formal divisions and the formal communication network ”. Under technologyunderstand:
♦ a set of techniques for converting the subject of labor (raw materials, information, human resources) into final products and services;
♦ the mechanism of the organization for the transformation of the subject of labor in the results that are the purpose of the organization.
In addition to the subject and means of labor, an important component of technology is the type of joint professional activity. It is possible to distinguish jointly interacting, jointly-sequential and jointly-individual types, each of which implies optimal variants of management organizational structures.
Management means the function of organized systems of various nature (biological, social, technical) ensuring the preservation of their specific structure, supporting the modes of activity, the implementation of their programs and goals. Social management is the impact on society in order to streamline it, preserve the qualitative specificity, improve and develop. In management under running understand the processes of coordination of activities of different subjects, taking into account the goals of the organization, the conditions for performing tasks, the stages of the sale of goods and services, etc.
A special aspect of social management is power grounds as “sources of power, means that are used to influence objects with the aim of achieving the objectives”; power resources – this is its potential grounds, means that can be used. In one of the most well-known classifications of the foundations of power, J. French and B. Raven, attention is focused on the ways in which the leader influences subordinates in an organization. Power is defined as an influence potential.
According to the theory, there are six foundations of power or resources that a subject of influence can use to change the representations, attitudes, and behavior of an object:
1) reward (power of encouragement);
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2) coercion (the power of force);
3) legitimacy (official authority, enshrined in laws, rules and regulations);
4) expert knowledge (expert power);
5) charisma (reference power);
6) information (information power).
Under by staff understand the totality of all human resources of an organization (employees, as well as partners and experts involved in solving specific tasks) [54, 56, 121, 127]. Over the past 100 years, starting with F. Taylor, attitudes towards personnel on the part of scientists and businessmen have changed dramatically. If initially the subjects of production of goods and services were perceived impersonal, only as its attribute, then as differing in their commodity “quality” with recommendations about the need for professional selection, nowadays the staff is understood as the most important resource of the organization.
An organization is not only the name of an enterprise or a company, a range of products, goods or services, offices, production facilities, etc. The joint work activity of people on the scale of a single organization gives rise to a whole range of social and psychological phenomena. One of them is organizational (corporate) culture. A remarkable characteristic of this phenomenon is given by E. Shane, a recognized authority in this field: “. the pattern of collective basic ideas gained by the group in solving the problems of adaptation to changes in the external environment and internal integration, the effectiveness of which is sufficient to consider it valuable and to transfer to new members of the group as proper perception and review systemnamed problems[142, p. 31-32] (highlighted by us. – V. T.).
In other words, the very fact that a subject works with other associates in a single physical, organizational and psychological space creates completely new realities and sets new objective tasks – for ordinary performers, for managers, for top managers, for professional consultants, for scientists.
Organization’s life nickname
In the life cycle of an organization, there are several main stages, stages of its development: the stage of formation, growth, maturity, aging, decline, renewal, or death of an organization. Each of these “classic stages” has typical forms of management, employee relations, requirements for their professionally important qualities, types of personnel policy, etc. Their knowledge allows us to predict probable problems and choose adequate management and personnel policy options.
The probability of unsuccessful passing of the first stages is high: about 50 / o of small businesses fail during the first two years, 80% – during the first five years, the average life expectancy of small and medium enterprises is 5-7 years.
The above dynamics of development is more pronounced depending on the specifics and scale of the organization. For example, in small firms, the stages alternate faster and replace each other more abruptly, the inadequacy of individual leadership actions can lead to collapse, while in large organizations such processes are more smooth and flow like a crisis, stagnation, stagnation. The state, as the largest of the existing organizations, also has oscillatory processes.
Barely formed as an independent branch of scientific and applied psychology, organizational psychology creates prerequisites for the formation on its basis of “subsidiary” branches – new scientific and applied disciplines (psychology of organizational development, psychology of management, organizational culture, sociology of organizations, etc.).
Formally, the essence of organizational psychology can be described as the development and specific distribution of the initial formula of the psychology of labor as a subject-object system in a more detailed form: system “social environment – organization – corporate culture – social group and group norms – subject – the object is the social environment. ”