Severe vomiting without diarrhea and temperature can be a sign of a number of diseases: pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and inflammation of the digestive organs, neurological abnormalities, problems with the endocrine system, and craniocerebral injuries. It is important in this situation to exclude cases of acute surgery – appendicitis and intestinal obstruction.
Vomiting is never an independent disease. It is always a symptom. It is usually accompanied by diarrhea and fever, or one of these two symptoms. These are characteristic signs of any intestinal infection, certain diseases of a viral nature, toxic infection or chemical poisoning. What can vomiting a child have without fever and diarrhea?
- Food poisoning and indigestion. Usually, when food poisoning a child has vomiting and diarrhea without or with fever. However, with a slight intoxication can only respond to the stomach in the form of a single vomiting. It also happens when indigestion, overeating, taking some kind of drug.
- Problems with metabolism. Most metabolic disorders are hereditary. First of all, it is diabetes. In order to diagnose malfunctions in the metabolism, the doctor will recommend taking a blood test for hormones and enzymes, an ultrasound of the digestive organs and kidneys. A child may experience individual intolerance to whole cow’s milk, glucose, cereals, fruits and other products. The treatment in this case is to eliminate unwanted meals from the diet.
- Neurological disorders and congenital abnormalities. There is such a thing as brain vomiting. She points out that the root cause is in neurological abnormalities. They could appear during fetal development, during birth trauma and asphyxia. Congenital cerebral pathology and other abnormalities can provoke abundant vomiting of the fountain or the flow of food from the esophagus. Vomiting is a characteristic symptom of concussion, traumatic brain injuries, brain tumors in children of any age. Related symptoms: headaches, nausea, dizziness. Also, vomiting may accompany migraines in children. Alas, this disease has recently become noticeably younger. Also, vomiting often occurs with meningitis, encephalitis, epilepsy.
- Intestinal obstruction, or invagination. May be congenital and acquired, complete and partial. Occurs in newborns, children up to a year and older. Occurs when one of the areas of the intestine is not reduced and does not push the stool towards the rectum. Along with vomiting, a child may experience cramping, sharp abdominal pain, weakness, pallor of the skin, and stool in the form of raspberry jelly with streaks of mucus and blood. Invagination is treated most often surgically.
- Foreign body in the esophagus. This state of emergency most often happens with children from a year to three, who are trying to try everything to the tooth. Typical symptoms: pain when swallowing, difficulty swallowing food, frothy formation in the throat, refusal to eat, restless behavior, crying, difficulty breathing in a large foreign body. Signs may vary depending on the size of the object and in which part of the esophagus it is stuck. Vomiting frequent and repeated, but does not bring relief. Long-term presence of a foreign body in the esophagus is dangerous with complications and can carry a life hazard. Diagnosed by fluoroscopy.
- Acute appendicitis. In infants occurs in extremely rare cases. Children of preschool and school age complain of pain in the right side, in the navel. The main symptoms are: sharp pain, frequent emptying of the intestines and urination, lack of appetite, repeated vomiting. A slight fever and diarrhea are possible.
- Inflammation of the digestive organs. These include stomach ulcers, gastritis, colitis, gastroduodenitis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and other diseases. A frequent symptom of acute gastritis is repetitive vomiting. Also, a child may have vomiting with diarrhea without fever. In vomit often found an admixture of mucus and bile. Gastritis in children provokes the nature of food, lifestyle, psycho-emotional state, complications after infectious diseases.
- Pyloric stenosis. Congenital narrowing of the passage between the stomach and duodenum. This leads to the fact that food is delayed in the stomach, under pressure is pushed out. Symptoms of pyloric stenosis are detected during the first days of a newborn’s life. After each meal there is abundant vomiting fountain. The child loses fluid and weight, which is life threatening. Only surgery in the early stages helps to get rid of pyloric stenosis.
- Pilorospasm. The stomach and duodenum are separated by a valve called the gatekeeper. Under the influence of the hormone gastrin, the pylorus muscles are in good shape until about 4 months. With constant spasm, it is difficult for food to pass from the stomach to the intestines. Unlike pyloric stenosis, with pyloric spasm, vomiting is not as frequent and profuse. With this functional impairment, a transition to a specialized nutrition of a thick consistency – anti-reflux mixtures – is recommended. If the baby is breastfed, the doctor may prescribe a mixture in a small amount before each breastfeeding. From medications can be prescribed antispasmodics. A good weight gain and overall well-being of infants indicate a favorable prognosis for pyloric spasm.
- Cardiospasm. Impaired motor function of the esophagus. It expands greatly when food gets into it. The lower esophageal sphincter (cardia) is narrowed, is in good shape, which provokes the impossibility of further movement of food into the stomach. Vomiting occurs during a meal or immediately after a meal, accompanied by cough. The child may complain of pain behind the sternum. Persistent cardiospasm is dangerous because children do not get the necessary amount of nutrition, do not gain weight and can lag behind in development. It is treated conservatively, that is, with the help of drugs. Surgical intervention is indicated for the ineffectiveness of drug therapy.
- Acetonemic crisis. Characteristic symptoms: smell of acetone from the mouth, nausea, weakness, headache. The causes of acetonemic syndrome have not been precisely established. The most likely of them are: fatty foods, constant overeating or, on the contrary, long breaks between meals, physical exertion, emotional outbursts, intestinal infections, metabolic disorders, tumors. More common in children from two to ten years. Acetone is found in the urine and blood during the test. A distinctive feature of acetonic syndrome is sudden, repeated and profuse vomiting. It can last several days. The danger of acetonic crisis is a sharp dehydration of the body, which can lead to convulsions and loss of consciousness.
- Neurotic vomiting. Characteristic for children after three years. It is called functional, psychogenic vomiting. Occurs during strong anxiety, over-excitement, fright. In the language of psychosomatics, vomiting means rejection, rejection of something. Neurotic vomiting can be a reaction to tasteless food that is forcefully eaten. It can also be demonstrative in children without parental attention. With persistent neurotic vomiting, the psychotherapist treats the child and the parent-child relationship.
- Complementary feeding in infants and year olds. Vomiting and diarrhea without temperature in a child up to one year old and at one year old can occur as a one-time reaction to complementary foods, the introduction of some new dishes into the diet. In this situation, you should temporarily cancel the product. Usually such a reaction happens to be fatty or large.
Features of diagnosis and treatment
Treatment of vomiting without fever in a child is effective if the cause of this symptom is accurately established. And it can be difficult to do, because vomiting is the “companion” of diseases of different nature.
How is the diagnosis
There are several effective methods of examination with abundant vomiting.
- Visually. The amount, the presence of impurities (pus, bile, blood, mucus), color, smell, consistency of vomitus – all these parameters will help the doctor to determine the type of vomiting characteristic of a particular disease.
- Laboratory study of vomit. Confirms or refutes the preliminary diagnosis.
- Instrumental examination of the digestive system. Ultrasound, gastrofibroskopiya (study using a probe), X-ray.
How is the treatment carried out
If the diagnosis is established, then narrow specialists deal with the treatment of the disease.
- Pediatrician. The first doctor to turn to when having multiple bouts of vomiting in a child. He will send for examination to narrow specialists.
- Gastroenterologist. It is engaged in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Therapy can be carried out in the hospital and at home. The disease is treated with medication, a strict diet is also important.
- Neurologist. All bouts of cerebral vomiting associated with neurology. Drug treatment, also prescribed physiotherapy, massage.
- Surgeon. Acute appendicitis, pyloric stenosis, intestinal obstruction, cardiospasm, foreign body in the esophagus – all these situations are considered a pediatric surgeon.
What should parents do
- To control the situation. Do not leave the child alone. The baby should be kept on hands, slightly bent forward so that the vomit does not get into the respiratory tract.
- After each seizure of vomiting, clean the mouth. An older child may self-rinse after vomit.
- In the prone position lay the child on its side. You can lie on your back, turning your head to the side, you can put a high pillow under your head.
- Do not feed during vomiting. Exceptions are infants.
- Remove with rehydration solutions. This is a prerequisite. You need to water often, every 5-10 minutes, in fractional portions. Read more about the principles of home care for vomiting in our other article.
What can be complications with repeated and severe vomiting
- Dehydration. Sharp loss of fluid disrupts the water-salt balance in the body, and this leads to serious consequences – malfunction of all vital organs. With extremely severe degrees of dehydration, convulsions and loss of consciousness are observed. This condition is especially dangerous for infants.
- Weight loss. It is dangerous for infants, premature and low birth weight babies. In such babies, critical weight loss may occur within a day.
- Bleeding. With persistent vomiting, the mucous membrane of the stomach and esophagus is injured, and blood vessels burst, resulting in blood in the vomit.
- Danger of suffocation from vomitus inhaled. The greatest risk in infants and children unconscious.
- Aspiration pneumonia. Occurs when vomit enters the lungs. Gastric juice is dangerous for lung tissue. Inpatient treatment is required: suction of mucus from the trachea, antibacterial therapy, if necessary, artificial respiration.
You can not hesitate and self-medicate in such situations.
Vomiting in a child without a temperature can be a one-time reflex reaction to some kind of irritant: the baby choked, coughed strongly or ate something tasteless. This is due to the increased gag reflex in children. However, repeated, profuse vomiting, not associated with intestinal infections, may signal a number of serious diseases. In this case, it is necessary to consult a doctor.