Doctors call blood glucose dissolved in blood sugar. Glucose – a source of energy for the life of the body. A person gets this item from foods containing sugar and carbohydrates. A healthy body can function normally only if there is a certain amount of glucose in the blood.
Sugar enters the body along with products containing carbohydrates, which, in turn, are digestible and non-digestible. Digestible carbohydrates break down into glucose, lactose, maltose and other substances. Glucose has the highest nutritional value. Its cleavage and utilization of the hormone are derived from the pancreas – insulin. Hormones are responsible for increasing its concentration: cortisol, somatotropin, glucagon, adrenaline, thyroxin.
Normal sugar performance
The rate for men and women is slightly different.
Norm for men
Over the years, sugar accumulates in the blood, so different indicators of the norm are taken for different ages:
- from 3 to 30 days after birth – 2.8-4.4 mmol / l;
- from 30 days to 14 years – 3.3-5.6 mmol / l;
- from 14 to 60 years – 4.6-6.4 mmol / l;
Smoking, alcohol, eating spicy and fatty foods leads to instability of the glucose level in men. Sometimes elevated sugar leads to impaired potency.
Norm for women
In women, as in men, the indicators of the norm of glucose change over the years:
- from 3 to 30 days after birth – 2.8-4.4 mmol / l;
- from 30 days to 14 years – 3.3-5.5 mmol / l;
- from 14 to 50 years – 3.3-5.6 mmol / l;
- from 50 to 60 years – 3.8-5.5 mmol / l;
The concentration of glucose in the blood of women has features associated with the fact that female sex hormones are actively involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Thanks to their “work”, sugar is eliminated from the blood faster than in men. With the onset of menopause, the level of sex hormones decreases, which leads to an increase in sugar levels.
How to analyze
Blood sugar is the concentration of glucose in it. To determine its normal rate, there is a biochemical analysis.
- spend it from 7 to 10 am;
- blood can be drawn from the finger and vein;
- you can not pass the analysis for sugar when taking antibiotics and ascorbic acid;
- for home analysis there is a blood glucose meter device;
- analysis is performed on an empty stomach. This is important because with the consumption of food the sugar level always rises. In a healthy person, after 12-16 minutes after eating, sugar rises, but after 1-2 hours it returns to normal. This phenomenon is called alimentary hyperglycemia and does not bring harm to health.
Large fluctuations in blood sugar are characteristic of people with diabetes. The level of glucose in their blood always remains high. Elevated sugar is called hyperglycemia, low – hypoglycemia. Both of these conditions are life threatening. To protect yourself, a person must know which numbers are normal for blood sugar. In women, men and children, the norms of sugar are different. These norms differ from those acceptable for people with diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a persistent increase in glucose concentration caused by complete or partial insulin deficiency. People who have discovered the symptoms of this disease should contact their endocrinologist, a specialist in the treatment of diabetes mellitus:
- constant thirst;
- weakness, fatigue;
- numbness of the fingers;
- unreasonable weight loss;
- trembling hands;
- frequent feeling of hunger;
- sudden overexcitement, convulsions;
- weakening of potency in men;
- frequent need for urination.
Cholesterol and blood sugar – what’s the connection?
Fat and carbohydrate metabolism in the body are interrelated. An excess of carbohydrates leads to the accumulation of fat cells, as a result of which lipid metabolism is disturbed. This violation leads to the formation of cholesterol plaques in the vessels, the loss of their elasticity and an increase in resistance to blood flow and, as a consequence, hypertension.
Medical studies of patients with the second type of diabetes have shown that all patients have problems with cholesterol levels. Increasing cholesterol and developing diabetes have the same prerequisites:
- smoking and alcohol;
- sedentary lifestyle;
Doctors say that diabetes is most often seen in people with elevated cholesterol.
Normal blood cholesterol values
Cholesterol has a twofold effect on the body. On the one hand, it clogs the blood vessels, leading to serious illnesses, and on the other, it serves as a “reason” for the formation of bile, vitamin D, estrogen and testosterone, and also participates in the formation of organic cells.
In medicine, there are notions of good and bad cholesterol. The latter is deposited on the vascular walls and forms plaques. It is he who represents a health hazard. Good cholesterol removes excess bad and sends them to the liver for processing and excretion.
The rate of cholesterol for healthy men and women is the same and is equal to 4 mmol / l. It is detected using laboratory analysis. It is important in establishing ischemic heart disease and atherosclerosis. The return cholesterol rate increases. At the same time, in men under 50, it is higher than that of women; after 50, cholesterol becomes higher in women. This circumstance in women is explained in the same way as in the case of blood sugar. Female sex hormones promote cholesterol cleavage. With age, they become smaller, which leads to an increase in lipid levels.
Low cholesterol (hypocholesterinemia)
Low blood cholesterol also presents a certain danger. Hemorrhagic brain stroke, infertility, obesity, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus can be its most serious consequences.
Signs of low cholesterol are:
- swollen lymph nodes;
- decrease in nervous sensitivity.
- pneumonia and tuberculosis;
- infections and sepsis;
- lean diet and vegetarianism;
- liver disease;
- hereditary factor.
How to take an analysis
Many foods increase cholesterol. Therefore, it is necessary to refrain from eating for 10-12 hours before donating blood. For another 2-4 days, it is advisable to refuse fatty, fried, spicy foods and alcohol is also not recommended to smoke. Some drugs affect cholesterol levels, so before analyzing the patient should tell the doctor what medicines he took the day before. These drugs include antibiotics, statins, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory drugs.
There are two types of cholesterol analysis:
- unfolded (lipid profile).
Biochemical research is to identify the concentration of a substance in the blood and assess its compliance with a normal indicator. If the result is abnormal, the patient is shown a lipid profile. It reveals the concentration of total cholesterol, its fractions and atherogenicity (the ratio of bad and good fats).
If sugar and cholesterol are raised
When establishing a high concentration of sugar and cholesterol in the blood, it is desirable for the patient to adhere to the following rules:
- refer to an endocrinologist and immediately begin drug treatment;
- lose weight (when it is redundant);
- stop smoking and alcohol;
- do physical exercise or increase physical activity (after consulting a doctor and in the absence of acute contraindications);
- follow a diet (rational nutrition in diabetes and high cholesterol is one of the main aspects of treatment);
- use only “sparing” methods for cooking (stewing, steam, baking);
- avoid stressful situations whenever possible (anxiety, the production of stress hormone cortisol, which causes an increase in glucose concentration);
- diabetics are advised to keep a diary indicating the daily amount of absorbed and excreted fluid;
- Do not starve (a diabetic drug without a meal dramatically reduces the level of sugar, which may lead to coma);
The main ban for hyperglycemia and high cholesterol is the ban on the use of a number of products. There are no other life restrictions for these diseases.
Medicines for lowering sugar and cholesterol
Sugar-lowering drugs in the form of tablets are shown to patients with a small degree of hyperglycemia. The following classes of drugs are used:
- sulfonyl urea derivatives – glibenclamide and glycide;
Their action lasts for 24 hours and is aimed at curbing sharp sugar surges.
- biguanides – metformin, glucofaz, gliformin;
These substances do not cause insulin secretion and stimulate the uptake of glucose by the cells. Biguanides also lower cholesterol.
Insulin class drugs are prescribed for severe insulin deficiency. Insulins are given as a subcutaneous injection. The dosage is calculated by the doctor based on the degree of hyperglycemia.
To lower cholesterol class drugs are used:
- statins – simvastatin, torvakard, atorvastatin, mevacor and others;
Their active ingredient blocks the enzyme that produces cholesterol. They are taken once a day, at night. Since at night there is the most active production of cholesterol.
- fibratov – tricor, gemfibrazil, bezofibrat;
Fibrates affect lipid metabolism. In terms of effectiveness, they are inferior to statins and are prescribed only at elevated levels of triglycerides.