Fat metabolism is a combination of processes of digestion and absorption of neutral fats, as well as their decomposition products in the gastrointestinal tract. Also responsible for the intermediate metabolism of fats and fatty acids, their excretion from the body. Lipids, which are part of the plants and tissues of animals are an important component of lipid metabolism in the body. Every day, about 70 grams of fat enters the body of an adult with food. Disorders of lipid metabolism are a factor in the development of many diseases. Partial breakdown of fat occurs in the stomach, but the main processes take place in the upper small intestine with pancreatic lipase. The regulation of fat metabolism is carried out by the hypothalamus, which comes into effect at the stage of the breakdown of fat in the stomach. Neurohormonal effects on fat metabolism are associated with the process of mobilizing fatty acids from fat depots. When emotional stress in the blood increases the level of free fatty acids, which leads to an increase in the release into the blood of catecholamines and activation of lipolysis. By activating or inhibiting lipolysis, the effect on fat metabolism is carried out.
Causes of fat metabolism disorders
Possible causes of impaired fat metabolism and incomplete fat splitting:
Lack of pancreatic lipase;
reduced bile flow;
dysfunction of the intestinal epithelium;
As a result of malabsorption disorders, large amounts of fatty acids appear in the feces, which leads to steatorrhea. Also, the body stops getting the right amount of fat-soluble vitamins. Blood plasma has a milky color due to the high content of chylomicrons. Treatment of pathology presupposes the replacement of natural fats with synthetic ones. Synthetic fatty acids are absorbed from the intestine directly into the blood. With a reduced activity of lipoprotein lipase, low density lipoproteins accumulate in the blood. In this case, patients are given intravenous heparin, and a diet low in fat and carbohydrates is prescribed.
Causes of overweight
In middle-aged and elderly people, excessive fat accumulation can occur in adipose tissue. The reason is high-calorie food combined with low energy costs. Overeating leads to obesity.
Excess fat deposition can be observed during the transition from active to sedentary lifestyle. At the same time, the outrage of the food center remains unchanged. The former appetite manifests itself, but energy costs are correspondingly reduced.
Morbid obesity is associated with the following factors:
reduced adipose tissue activity;
enhanced conversion of carbohydrates to fats;
increased excitability of the food center;
reduced muscle activity.
Reduced fat mobilization also occurs when the functions of the thyroid gland and the pituitary gland are impaired, since their hormones activate lipolysis. The reduced function of the gonads also leads to excessive fat deposition. The main factor in the development of hereditary constitutional obesity is hypersecretion of insulin.
The most noticeable sign of obesity is an increase in the volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue. With a high intensity of this process, obesity can be considered an independent disease. It is important to know that people with overweight:
- poorly tolerate exercise;
- have shortness of breath;
- increased appetite;
- have high blood pressure.
Also, with obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes. Also with an increase in the content of lipids in the body, their content in the blood also increases. This leads to hyperlidemia. Obesity of blood is very dangerous, as atherosclerosis plaques form, which clog up the blood vessels. As a result, the patient is waiting for a heart attack or stroke.
Depletion and ketosis
Depletion with insufficient fat deposition in the tissues, it develops when the excitability of the food center is depressed, with a reduced absorption of fats and carbohydrates (enteritis), with prolonged fasting. Disorders in the formation of fat from carbohydrates can be observed with lesions of the autonomic centers of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, as well as the adrenal cortex. Such disorders underlie progressive malnutrition in pituitary cachexia and Addison’s disease. Cachexia – extreme depletion of the body, which is characterized by:
- General weakness;
- a sharp decrease in weight;
- activity of physiological processes;
- mental disorders.
Symptoms of cachexia are pronounced weakness, disability, sudden weight loss, often accompanied by signs of dehydration. Weight loss up to 50% with the development of the disease.
The accumulation of fats in the liver cells is a reaction to diseases and organ damage. Also, fatty infiltration of the liver is observed in diabetes mellitus, protein deficiency, alcohol poisoning, obesity. Ketosis – increased formation and accumulation of ketone bodies in tissues and blood. In the state of ketosis, the body can function for a long time. For example, the inhabitants of the north during the life eat animal food and fish without damage to health. But for the leaders of the rest of the terrestrial world, the predominance of animal food in the diet is not typical historically. Therefore, a low carbohydrate diet and the introduction of the body into a state of ketosis can adversely affect health, causing pathological changes in metabolism.
Prevention and treatment
Treatment of disorders of fat metabolism involves the complete elimination of the physical causes of the disorder and tuning the body to the correct metabolism. Also mandatory item is diet. With obesity, you need to limit yourself to fat and sweet, and when exhausted, you should gradually enter into the body products with a high content of fats and carbohydrates. A dietitian will be able to prescribe an adequate diet, and will also recommend additional prophylaxis. In case of obesity, sports training helps, physical activity restores lipid balance in the blood. Sport also has a positive effect on metabolism.
Coping with fat metabolism is possible in three to four months. In case of serious disorders, it is better to seek help from an endocrinologist, who can choose a long-term form of treatment. The best prevention of violation of fat metabolism is diet and sports training. Routine examination by a nutritionist will help identify possible problems with the metabolism in the body. The specialist will assign the necessary tests and select an individual diet to restore fat metabolism in the body. The patient can only monitor the implementation of the diet and listen to all the recommendations of the doctor.