With the onset of autumnal cold, one can more often hear the diagnosis of laryngotracheitis.
This disease affects both adults and children. Children suffer more often due to the age structure of the larynx.
Laryngotracheitis is characterized as a disease of the upper respiratory tract, in which simultaneous inflammatory processes of the mucous membranes of the larynx (laryngo) and trachea (tracheitis) occur. The disease is infectious in nature, often seen as a consequence of ARVI or herpes infection.
Causes of laryngotracheitis
The disease is a highly contagious type, spread by airborne droplets.
In children, the cause of laryngotracheitis is a hemophilus bacillus (B-type), in an adult it can be caused by both streptococcus (beta-hemolytic) and a diphtheria bacillus, or parainfluenza viruses. Given the clinical similarity with diphtheria or simply “croup”, laryngotracheitis is often called “false croup”.
The main reasons directly include the virus – the causative agent of the disease. But there are also reasons predisposing to the disease:
- loud, hysterical singing (for singers);
- prolonged or frequent cry (young children);
- alcoholism and smoking;
- inhalation of gases, dust;
- long stay in the cold;
- intake of cold or hot drinks (acts as an irritant).
The form of the disease is divided:
- 1) Acute form;
- 2) Chronic form.
In the acute period divide:
- 1) Primary (first arisen);
- 2) recurrent (recurs).
Chronic course may be due to factors such as improper treatment, reduced immunity, a number of comorbidities (cystitis, tuberculosis, gastritis, etc.). Also, the chronic form is found in teachers and singers, as a result of the professional over-tension of the vocal cords.
Primary laryngotracheitis may occur as an independent disease without signs of viral infection, and against the background of acute respiratory viral infections, or as a complication of acute respiratory infections.
There is also a third type of laryngotracheitis – stenosing (obturating). It occurs against the background of long-term inflammatory processes, as a complication. May occur on the background of trauma to the larynx or trachea (chemical burn, foreign body).
Downstream laryngotracheitis is:
- wave-like nature of the flow;
- constant (continuous flow).
Morphologically, the disease is divided into types:
- 1) Catarral appearance – changes: hyperemia, infiltration and thickening of the mucous membrane, minor hemorrhages in the mucous membrane.
- 2) Hypertrophic appearance – changes: bluish color of the mucous membrane, infiltration of muscle fibers, ulcers and cystic formations can occur.
- 3) Atrophic view – changes: the mucous membrane is covered with sclerotic connective tissue formation, atrophy of muscle tissue and glands occurs.
Symptoms of laryngotracheitis
In adults, the first symptoms of laryngotracheitis, which can be suspected of developing the disease:
- hyperthermia (increased body temperature up to 40 degrees);
- noisy breathing with profuse wheezing (stenotic breathing);
- hoarse voice, sore throat;
- cough (barking character);
- patients may have trouble swallowing.
In young children, manifestation occurs in the form of false croup. Attacks of coughing, choking. These attacks begin at a later time of day, in duration up to half an hour, they are obsessive.
When occlusive laryngotracheitis, muscle spasm joins the above symptoms, which causes respiratory failure and hypoxia (oxygen deficiency).
Laryngotracheitis may be a complication of diseases such as syphilis or tuberculosis. In such cases, the prognosis is not favorable, full recovery is observed extremely rarely, and loss of voice is observed in 90% of cases.
Treatment of laryngotracheitis
The description of the treatment should begin with the fact that laryngotracheitis in different stages behaves differently.
So at the initial stage of the disease can be limited to bed rest, voice rest, plenty of drinking and local antiseptics. At the same time, when joining a viral infection, or if the disease is a consequence of the virus, it is necessary to carefully select the treatment of laryngotracheitis.
This also applies to the treatment of children. In childhood, metabolic processes in the body occur much faster than in adults, therefore, from elementary dehydration to a state of shock quite a bit.
Treatment of laryngotracheitis can be divided into:
one) Not medication:
- air the room;
- humidify the air;
- observe voice rest (complete silence);
- reception of sparing food in small portions;
- abundant warm drink;
- phytotherapy (rinsing and inhalation with herbs, chest collection.)
- antipyretic (at high body temperature);
- antiviral drugs;
- mucolytics (to thin the sputum);
- antihistamines (to relieve edema);
- inhalations (alkaline oil, inhalations with mineral water, but are contraindicated at high temperatures);
- irrigation of the larynx with local antiseptics (contraindicated in the acute period, due to the alcohol content may lead to laryngospasm);
- antispasmodics (in the presence of laryngeal spasm);
- antibiotic therapy (in the presence of bacterial associated diseases).
3) Surgical treatment:
- excision of cysts;
- an increase in the lumen of the larynx.
Complications of laryngotracheitis
Prevention of laryngotracheitis consists of a set of measures:
- SARS prevention;
- prevention of inflammation of the larynx;
- a diet with the exception of spicy, salty, sour, hot or cold foods;
- mandatory sports activities;
- breathing exercises;
- hardening from an early age;
- eliminate hypothermia;
- taking immunomodulatory drugs.
If laryngotracheitis proceeds in a normal way, without complications, then recovery occurs within a week. Do not self-medicate, the treatment process should be under the supervision of the attending physician.
Which doctor to contact for treatment?
If, after reading the article, you assume that you have symptoms characteristic of this disease, then you should consult an ENT doctor.