Inflammation of the urethra belongs to the most common urological diseases, which affects both women and men.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra (urethra) is called urethritis. Statistics show that the prevalence of the disease is increasing, and in most cases it is caused by infection. However, urethritis can be non-infectious. Consider the causes, features, methods of treatment and prevention of this disease in more detail.
Causes of Urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra may be a consequence of the action of viruses or bacteria. The most common infection occurs during sex.
Urethritis of non-infectious origin can be triggered by allergies, metabolic disorders, often occurs against the background of stagnant processes in the pelvic area and other diseases of the urinary system.
Appearance urethritis promote promiscuity, decreased immunity, trauma to the urethra or penis, inadequate fluid intake, and irregular urination.
What happens urethritis
As follows from the above, urethritis is infectious and non-infectious. These types of diseases also have their own classification.
Infectious urethritis can be:
- specific. It is caused by gonococci, trichomonads, chlamydia, gardnerella, herpesvirus, candida, etc.
- non-specific. In this case, it is provoked by staphylococci, E. coli, streptococci, etc.
Noninfectious urethritis includes:
- congestive (stagnant).
As a rule, non-infectious urethritis after a time is converted into nonspecific bacterial.
Depending on the nature of the urethritis is acute or chronic. If the inflammatory process occurs in the mucous membrane of the urethra, urethritis is primary. Inflammation that has developed as a result of infection from other organs into the urethra is called secondary urethritis.
Symptoms of the disease
The characteristic symptoms of urethritis are burning sensation in the urethra and pain during urination.
If urethritis is caused by an infection, symptoms usually appear 3–7 days after infection. There are cases when the incubation period is reduced to several hours, or, conversely, is several weeks.
Acute urethritis signals pain and burning during urination. Cutting can be quite strong, and urge to urinate – speeded up. Another sign of the acute form of the disease may be discharge from the urethra, often in the morning. The characteristics of the secretions depend on the type of infection that caused them, but there may be no discharge.
Men earlier and more acutely notice the symptoms of urethritis than women. But women more often have its exacerbations (for example, cystitis). This is due to the difference in the anatomical structure of the urinary tract of men and women. Sometimes the symptoms of urethritis are minimal, so a person may not suspect that he is sick, while being a source of infection.
In chronic urethritis, the symptoms are smoothed out, and the impression is that the disease “has gone away”. But in this case, the infection may remain in prostate, seminal vesicles, Bartholin and small glands of the vestibule of the vagina, and under the influence of adverse factors (hypothermia, acute respiratory viral infections, eating spicy food, etc.) there is a recurrence of the disease. If neighboring organs are involved in the inflammatory process, this is fraught with sterility.
Acute prostatitis can become chronic both due to lack of treatment, and against the background of the spread of inflammation to the surrounding tissues and prostate, immunodeficiency.
Diagnosis of urethritis
At statement of the diagnosis are considered:
- patient complaints;
- results of examination of the external genital organs;
- the results of laboratory studies (OAM, OAK, smear from the urethra, culture for sensitivity to antibiotics).
If necessary, additional studies are appointed to exclude the involvement of other organs in the pathological process.
Treatment and Prevention
For the treatment of urethritis used antibacterial drugs (furadonin, furazolidone, monural), including fluoroquinolones (tsifran, etc.), the choice of which depends on the results of seeding and antibiotic sensitivity. The duration of treatment is affected by the severity of the disease.
To get rid of chronic urethritis, it will take much more effort, time and material costs. In addition to antibiotics (amoxiclav, augmentin), for the treatment of this form of urethritis, immunomodulatory drugs and local treatment are prescribed (antiseptic preparations are injected into the urethra).
Prevention of inflammation of the urethra is in compliance with the rules of hygiene, the presence of a permanent sexual partner or the use of a condom during casual sexual intercourse.