Glossitis is an inflammation of the tongue that occurs as a result of its injury, the effect of pathogenic microorganisms, or as a condition associated with other diseases.
We are all at least once in our lives, but we hurt our language. We burn it, bite it and think that nothing terrible will heal, but, sooner or later, it is possible and it will take revenge on us.
Glossitis is a common ailment, but often it is a consequence of systemic pathologies, for example, blood diseases and gastrointestinal tract. A deficiency of vitamins in our body, smoking, failure to follow the rules of oral hygiene, allergic reactions to toothpaste, in this list and mouth fresheners, excessive use of alcoholic beverages leads to the development of the disease.
There is a deep and superficial form of the disease. Glossitis with a superficial form is basically a manifestation of stomatitis, namely inflammation of the oral mucosa. With deep glosses, ulcers, phlegmons, or abscesses appear in the thick of the tongue. Here, one cannot do without surgical intervention, since the pathological process can go to the bottom of the oral cavity, which in turn will cause inflammation of the neck and chin.
Glossitis occurs: ulcerative, catarrhal, purulent-phlegmy.
Catarrhal occurs with burns of the tongue and superficial injuries, oral candidiasis, stomatitis, as well as with infectious and other diseases, such as anemia. Manifested by redness, swelling, the appearance of plaque on the surface of the tongue.
Ulcerative glossitis usually develops on the background of catarrhal. In the language, single or multiple rather small ulcers are formed, characterized by pain, bleeding, deterioration of the general condition. The purulent-phlegmy glossitis is very difficult, with it affects not only the deep layers of the tongue, but also the adjacent lymph nodes.
At the first manifestations of the disease, you need to visit the dentist, who will establish the main cause of the disease and determine the appropriate treatment. If it is a mechanical injury, then the denture should be adjusted or the sharp edge of the split tooth should be ground.
Rinsing the oral cavity with prescribed antiseptic solutions is one of the important procedures.
If pathogenic microbes have led to the disease, then anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs should be used. Reducing pain will contribute to a sparing diet, in the form of mashed porridges, soups and mashed potatoes.
Note that in clinical practice there are specific types of the disease, namely:
Desquamative glossitis – with this disease, the language takes the form of a map of the hemispheres. A visual inspection reveals that the tongue is cut up by grooves and lines that look like the outlines of continents. It usually occurs as a concomitant malady in cases of metabolic disorders, blood diseases, gastrointestinal tract, and some infectious diseases. Treatment consists in the treatment of the underlying disease.
Diamond-shaped glossitis – gastritis with high acidity is the background of development. Manifested by clinically thickening of the epithelium with the formation in the basal region of the tongue – diamond-shaped area. Treatment usually does not require. Its necessity arises, if growths are formed on the affected surface of the tongue, they are directly removed with a laser.
With villous glossitis, filiform papillae form in the back of the tongue, which are very similar to hairs of different colors. Basically, treatment consists of mechanically removing these processes with tweezers and further processing with a special solution of the surface of the tongue.
Folded glossitis is mainly a congenital anomaly, in which transverse and longitudinal folds of different depths are formed.
Glossitis is often manifested with hypovitaminosis. For example, with a deficiency of vitamin A, dry tongue, unhealed and painful cracks, increased keratinization of the epithelium occur. With a deficiency of folic acid and vitamin B12 the epithelial cover becomes thinner, the surface of the tongue becomes bright, varnished, hyperemic, and under the influence of stimuli it is very painful.
The very first and main signs of inflammation of the tongue are a sensation in the mouth of a foreign body and a burning sensation. The tongue gradually becomes either burgundy or bright red, when touched, it causes pain and slightly swells. Strengthening of puffiness provokes and increases salivation. At the same time, it is painful for a person to eat and talk, besides, his taste sensations are also dulled.
There may be a pale touch on the tongue, in case of pernicious anemia. If the reason is a deficiency of vitamin B, then the tongue becomes bright red.
The clinical picture and results of laboratory blood tests are the main methods for diagnosing glossitis.
At the same time such blood tests are assigned:
About preventive measures in case of a disease, as a rule, only those people who have already become its victim think about and are interested. The most important thing in prevention is the need to give up alcoholism and smoking, limit the use of spicy, hot and coarse food, hygiene of the oral cavity, good nutrition, a visit to the dentist, detection of irritation of the mucous membrane of the tongue.
It is imperative to treat the disease, which actually causes the occurrence of glossitis, regularly monitor the vitamin composition in the body.
Glossitis must be treated, otherwise it can end with a serious difficulty in breathing and swelling of the tongue. Based on this, the earlier the treatment is started, the naturally better and there is hope for recovery.
Basically, treatment is aimed at eliminating the damaging factors or the underlying disease. Irritating food is excluded before subsiding of the inflammatory process.
Prescribe antiseptic solutions – potassium permanganate, furatsilina aqueous solution, chlorhexidine – in the form of baths, rinses, applications. Anesthetics in solutions are used for pain relief. In case of ulcers and erosions, a necrotic or fibrin plaque is removed daily with a cotton swab, and then the affected surface of the tongue is treated with antiseptic solutions. It is used to accelerate the healing process of applications with solcoseryl in the form of an ointment or jelly, with vitamin A, vinisole, carotolin, rosehip oil, etc. Horny areas with pronounced hyperkeratosis are removed by surgery.
Multivitamins, desensitizing agents, and immunostimulants are recommended to strengthen the immunity. Surgical intervention is used with deep glossitis.
Therapy of desquamating glossitis is aimed at treating the underlying disease.
Does not need treatment at all – flat diamond-shaped glossitis. In case of warty, papillomatous and diamond-shaped glossitis, surgical treatment using laser evaporation is also used, and radiosurgery is also used.
In the treatment of villous glossitis, mechanical devices are used, for example, tweezers for treating the surface of the tongue with a solution of copper sulfate and removing the filiform papillae. If candidiasis is the cause of the disease, antifungal agents are indicated.
If syphilis is not treated, then with interstitial glossitis, the muscular tissue of the tongue is replaced with fully connective tissue, which accordingly leads to irreversible changes.