Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, due to which there is a violation of the digestibility of glucose in the body, which in turn leads to an increase in glucose. But, there are other reasons for increasing blood sugar besides diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus is the third most prevalent disease that poses a threat worldwide. In most cases, the first and second type of illness.
However, pathology also has specific types – Modi, Lada, and others. But they are much less common. It is not excluded that due to the fact that these types of diseases are difficult to diagnose, and they are easily confused with type 1 or 2 diabetes.
It is necessary to consider the reasons for the increase in blood sugar, which are not related to diabetes. And also find out what symptoms indicate an increase in glucose in the human body?
Physiological sugar increase
The norm is considered to be indicators of sugar content, which vary from
In the case where sugar has increased over
In order to confirm or deny diabetes mellitus, additional tests will be recommended in any case. And on the basis of all transcripts of analyzes, the disease is already diagnosed.
As mentioned above, diabetes mellitus is characterized by an increase in blood sugar. But this disease is not the only cause that leads to this pathology. In medical practice, the physiological and pathological causes of glucose increase are highlighted.
With intense physical activity, prolonged mental hard work, as well as after a meal, the concentration of sugar in the blood increases. This is a natural result of any physiological process in the body.
However, after a certain period of time, as the body independently regulates the level of sugar, the glucose indicators gradually decrease, as a result of which they stabilize within acceptable limits.
Physiological increase in sugar can be based on the following reasons:
- Pain shock, acute myocardial infarction.
- Burns moderate and severe.
- Epileptic seizure.
- Severe angina pectoris.
- Violation of the functionality of the liver, when the sugar entering the blood from glycogen cannot be fully absorbed.
- Traumatic brain injury, surgical procedure (for example, surgery on the stomach).
- Stressful situation, nervous tension.
- Fractures, injuries and other injuries.
Stress leads to the fact that certain hormones enter the bloodstream, which contribute to an increase in the concentration of sugar in the body. However, when a person calms down, glucose returns to normal on its own.
Taking certain medications leads to an increase in blood sugar. For example, birth control pills, steroids, diuretic tablets, antidepressants, tranquilizers as a side effect provoke an increase in sugar.
In medical practice, there have been cases where prolonged use of such drugs (over two years), has led to the development of diabetes. Therefore, if there is a hereditary factor, you need to carefully study the side effects of all medications taken.
In any case, when the body is fully functional, and it is possible to eradicate the source of sugar increase, then glucose is normalized at the required level. If this does not happen, then you need to pass an additional examination.
Pathological causes of increased sugar
As mentioned above, the causes of high blood sugar may lie in the development of diabetes mellitus, based on physiological etiology (sugar increases for a short period of time).
In addition, in medical practice, diseases are highlighted, the occurrence of which directly or indirectly leads to an increase in sugar in the human body.
Definitely, diabetes mellitus occupies the first place among pathologies, which leads to an increase in the concentration of sugar in the human body. Diabetes is a disease of the endocrine system when there is a shortage of pancreatic hormones.
What affects the increase in blood sugar? Diabetes mellitus can be confused with other pathologies that also increase the performance of sugar. Consider the disease in more detail:
- Pheochromocytoma – an endocrine pathology, which results in the production of a large amount of adrenaline and norepinephrine – are hormones that provide an increase in glucose. A symptom of the disease is an increase in blood pressure indicators, and they can vary significantly and reach the limit values. Symptoms: irritability, rapid heartbeat, increased sweating, a state of gratuitous fear, nervous agitation.
- Pathology Itsenko-Cushing (problems with the pituitary gland), a violation of the functionality of the thyroid gland. These diseases lead to the fact that there is a large release of glucose into the blood, respectively, its concentration increases.
- Pancreas diseases, acute and chronic pancreatitis, tumor formation. When these conditions are observed, insulin cannot be fully produced, which leads to the development of secondary diabetes.
- Chronic liver ailments – hepatitis, cirrhosis, tumor formation in the body.
As the above information shows, there are many diseases that lead to hormonal imbalances in the body, resulting in a pathological increase in sugar.
As a rule, if adequate medical therapy is implemented to eradicate the underlying problem, then sugar will soon return to normal.
Symptoms of high sugar
An increase in blood sugar may be asymptomatic, that is, a person does not feel a deterioration in his health, there are no negative signs and deviations from the norm.
It happens that there are slight and poorly pronounced signs of increasing the concentration of sugar. However, people tend to not pay attention to their condition, writing off unusual symptoms for completely different reasons.
In principle, the clinical picture of the increase in sugar in the human body is quite extensive, and the signs of sweet blood can vary significantly depending on the length of time the pathology, the age group of the person, and the sensitivity of the organism to changes.
Consider the symptoms that are inherent in a rise in blood sugar:
- Dry mouth, the constant desire to drink up to 5 liters per day, abundant and frequent urination, an increase in the proportion of urine per day are the most common classic symptoms of high sugar.
- General malaise, fatigue, weakness, lethargy, decreased performance.
- The decrease in body weight against the background of the previous diet.
- Skin diseases that are difficult to drug therapy.
- Frequent infectious and catarrhal ailments, pathologies of pustular character.
- Unexpected nausea, vomiting.
Women have an itch and a burning sensation in the genital area with a high concentration of sugar. In turn, the chronic increase in glucose in men adversely affects erectile function.
It should be noted that an excessive increase in sugar is extremely dangerous, as this leads to numerous complications. If there is a critical increase in sugar over 15 units (it can reach 35-40 units), then the patient has a confused consciousness, hallucinations, an increased risk of coma and subsequent death.
It is not necessary that one person will experience exactly all of the above symptoms. Yes, and the severity of symptoms may vary significantly.
However, if there are several of these symptoms – this is the reason for seeking medical attention. That he will be able to differentiate the disease, and make the correct diagnosis.
How to differentiate a disease?
Differentiating the physiological cause of sugar increase from pathological etiology is quite simple. As a rule, one blood test, which shows the excess of indicators, is not judged on the disease.
If the first analysis showed an excess of normal values, then the doctor will prescribe a repeated test. When the reason was a physiological increase in sugar (stress, or the patient did not follow the recommendations before the study), the second result would be within the acceptable range.
Along with this, in order to differentiate a chronic sugar disease or a pre-diabetic condition characterized by an increase in the concentration of glucose in the human body, the following studies can be recommended:
- Examination of biological fluid on an empty stomach. It is necessary not to eat at least 10 hours before the test itself. As a rule, several fences are held on different days, after the results are decoded and compared.
- The test that determines the sensitivity to sugar. Initially, the patient takes blood on an empty stomach, after that the sugar load is carried out and the biological fluid is taken again after 30, 60, 120 minutes.
- The results of glycated hemoglobin provide an opportunity to trace the sugar in the human body over the past three months.
If glycated hemoglobin is up to 5.7%, it means that carbohydrate metabolism is fully functional, the risk of developing diabetes is reduced to zero. If the results vary from 5.7 to 6%, the likelihood of developing diabetes is high, you need to switch to a low-carb diet.
If the study of glycated hemoglobin shows a percentage of 6.1 to 6.4%, then the risk of diabetes is high, a pre-diabetic condition is diagnosed, a strict diet is prescribed. Above 6.5% is diabetes. The video in this article will tell you what to do with diabetes.