Dear readers, today on the blog we will discuss with you why blood sugar can rise, what symptoms should alert us, what we need to know about the causes and signs of high blood sugar. This topic is important and relevant to many. Doctor Evgeny Snegir will be the first to talk about everything. He will help me comment on articles on the blog and answer all questions professionally. I give the floor to Eugene.
How much blood sugar should be
Good afternoon, readers of the blog Irina. First of all, let us denote that when we speak about the level of sugar in the blood, we mean, of course, the level of blood glucose. Glucose is a monosaccharide. The sugar that we put in our tea in the morning is already a disaccharide – sucrose, consisting of glucose and fructose.
So, the rate of blood sugar in adults and children:
- up to one month – 2.8-4.4 mmol / l;
- up to 14 years – 3.2-5.5 mmol / l;
- from 14 to 60 years – 3.2-5.5 mmol / l;
- from 60 years to 90 years – 4.6-6.4 mmol / l;
- over 90 years old – 4.2-6.7 mmol / l.
Now consider a specific life situation. The day of the scheduled preventive examination came, and in the results obtained, a man of mature age saw a figure of blood sugar equal to 6.1 mmol / l. Of course, referring to the know-all Yandex and Google, a person realized that his sugar is above these standards. Further, panic, thoughts about the terrible disease that has befallen him, calls to friends, excitement of relatives …
However, this level of sugar is normal if the biochemical analysis is carried out from blood taken from a vein. The thing is that in the venous blood the glucose level is higher than in the capillary blood taken from the finger. The upper limit of the normal level of sugar in venous blood in people under the age of 60 years is up to 6.1 mmol / l.
Therefore, after seeing an elevated blood sugar level, you should not be afraid; you just need to quickly recall where the notorious analysis came from.
What diseases cause high blood sugar
In order to competently speak on this topic, we immediately clarify that an increase in blood sugar can be pathological (occur in various diseases) or be completely physiological (for example, after eating, after emotional stress).
High blood sugar in medicine is called hyperglycemia. So, hyperglycemia is physiological, pathological or mixed.
Blood sugar rises with the following diseases.
Diabetes is of two types. Type I diabetes occurs in childhood and is associated with the inability of the pancreas to synthesize its own hormone insulin. The function of insulin is to help deliver glucose to the cell. If its blood level is low, the cells do not receive glucose, which is necessary for the implementation of vital processes, while the level of glucose in the blood from food is constantly increasing. The situation arises, as endocrinologists say, of hunger with abundance: there are many glucose in the blood, and the cells are sitting on a starvation diet.
Type II diabetes mellitus develops in adulthood and is associated with the inability of cell receptors to bind with insulin. In the future, secondary insulin insufficiency may also be added when the pancreas decreases insulin synthesis due to its low efficiency.
Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer
In pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, the pancreatic tissue is destroyed, and its cells cease to function, in particular, to synthesize insulin. This leads to an increase in blood sugar levels.
Hyperthyroidism is an increased release of thyroid hormones into the blood that raise sugar levels.
Tumors that synthesize hormones that increase blood sugar levels
These include pheochromocytoma (adrenal tumor), glucagonoma (pancreatic tumor), growth hormone synthesizing tumors.
Myocardial infarction, stroke, skeletal injuries
There is stressful hyperglycemia associated with the release of adrenaline.
When this syndrome occurs, the formation of adrenal hormones (hypercorticism) is increased. Hormones increase blood glucose levels.
Oral contraceptives, prednisone, beta-blockers, estrogens, glucagon, phenothiazines, thiazide diuretics, a number of psychotropic drugs increase the level of sugar.
Signs of high blood sugar
1. The main symptom is constant thirst.
Due to the high level of sugar in the blood a person wants to constantly drink. Glucose pulls water from peripheral organs and tissues. When the level of glucose in the blood rises above 10 mmol / l (renal threshold), it begins to be excreted in the urine, trapping water molecules with it. As a result, frequent urination, dehydration. Of course, the body tries to compensate for the loss of water abundant drink.
2. Dry mouth.
This symptom is associated with excess fluid loss.
It occurs due to dehydration and loss of important electrolytes with urine.
4. Pruritus, tingling in fingers and toes, numbness of fingers.
These symptoms are associated with the phenomenon of neuropathy, when a high level of glucose affects the condition of the membranes of the nerves. Violation of innervation and causes similar sensations.
5. Pain in the limbs when moving, cold limbs to the touch.
Such sensations develop in connection with impaired blood supply and microcirculation disorders in the limbs. They are associated with damage to the vascular wall with persistent hyperglycemia, in other words, there is angiopathy.
6. Impaired vision.
The work of the visual analyzer is impaired due to the already described phenomena of angiopathy and neuropathy. Retinopathy (retinal pathology) occurs.
7. Often the function of the gastrointestinal tract is disturbed (constipation or diarrhea appears). Possible deterioration of appetite.
8. Weight gain.
Due to insufficient insulin action.
9. The development of pathology of the kidneys (nephropathy).
Signs of high blood sugar have their manifestations depending on gender and age. We will discuss these specific features, which first need to pay attention.
Signs of increased blood sugar in men
- in connection with the development of angiopathy and neuropathy, the potency is disturbed;
- severe itching in the groin and anus;
- due to frequent urination, the foreskin can be inflamed;
- poor healing of wounds and scratches;
- increased fatigue, decreased performance;
- constant weight gain;
- arterial hypertension.
Signs of increased blood sugar in women
- pruritus in the intimate area;
- dry skin, the skin becomes itchy and rough;
- dryness, brittle nails and hair, hair loss;
- poor healing of wounds, the addition of a fungal infection, possible development of pyoderma (purulent inflammatory skin disease), the appearance of blisters on the limbs;
- the development of neurodermatitis;
- allergic skin rashes;
- nephropathy occurs more often.
Signs of increased blood sugar in children
Parents should pay attention to the following symptoms:
- feeling of thirst; the child tries to drink any liquid in any volumes available to him;
- frequent urination, the child constantly runs to the toilet; a child may be described at night, although this has not been previously noted;
- fast weight loss; This is due to the fact that the child’s body cannot use glucose as a source of energy; to cover energy consumption, fat from subcutaneous tissue is consumed;
- constant feeling of hunger;
- constant feeling of tiredness;
- visual impairment; arises due to dehydration of the lens of the eye;
- appearance of fungal infections
Causes of increased blood sugar
The physiological reasons for the increase in blood sugar are:
- food intake (that is why blood sugar, taken on an empty stomach, is of diagnostic value); normally two hours after a meal, blood sugar levels should not exceed 5.5 mmol / l;
- reception of a large amount of alcoholic beverages;
- stressful situations (caused by the release of stress hormones into the blood).
The pathological causes of high blood sugar are due to the causes of the disease in which it occurs. Endocrinologists call the cause of the development of type I diabetes in children an autoimmune reaction in which the body begins to produce antibodies to its own pancreatic cells, which synthesize insulin (islets of Langerhans).
A similar situation occurs when a hereditary predisposition, after past infectious diseases (influenza, rubella, Epstein-Barr virus, Coxsackie virus, cytomegalovirus).
Other causes of type I diabetes can be hypovitaminosis D, early feeding of cow’s milk (development of allergic reactions), early feeding of cereals, eating food contaminated with nitrates or nitrites.
The leading cause of diabetes mellitus type II is a genetic predisposition. Specialists identified genes responsible for the occurrence of pathology of the receptor apparatus of cells. Therefore, if someone from close relatives has this disease, you should be very careful in the diet, as we say below.
Blood sugar rises in all conditions associated with inflammatory diseases of the pancreas or necrosis of its tissue (pancreatitis, pancreatic necrosis). The death of the islets of Langerhans leads to the fact that the pancreas ceases to perform its endocrine function.
Infectious diseases can also lead to an increase in blood sugar levels, therefore only the sugar level measured after full recovery from flu and other ARVI is of diagnostic value. Do not forget about it, our dear readers.
Any endocrine disorders in the body (pathology of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, acromegaly) are manifested by an increase in blood glucose levels.
The cause of the increase in blood sugar can be hereditary diseases: muscular dystrophy, Huntington’s chorea, cystic fibrosis.
The content of glucose in the blood can increase during pregnancy – the so-called gestational diabetes occurs.
Hyperglycemia can also be a side effect of medication, it is openly written about this in the instructions for the drug. Be sure to read the instructions from the medicine box, find out if your medicine affects blood sugar levels or not.
To learn more about high blood sugar, we suggest watching the video.
Prevention of high blood sugar
Proper balanced nutrition
It is necessary to limit fast-absorbing carbohydrates in the diet. These include glucose and sucrose, which breaks down in the gastrointestinal tract into glucose and fructose. They are contained in large quantities in all sweets, and especially a lot of sugar in sweet carbonated drinks. Such carbohydrates are quickly absorbed from food into the bloodstream, which provides a quick and lasting increase in blood sugar.
In addition, it must be remembered that every piece of delicious cake is a blow to the pancreas, which is forced to increase the synthesis of insulin to cope with the resulting carbohydrate aggression.
It is believed that a safe amount is not more than five teaspoons of sugar per day.
Food should include foods containing polysaccharides (dietary fiber, inulin, starch). They are slowly broken down in the gastrointestinal tract to monosaccharides, which are already then calmly and slowly absorbed into the blood, providing the energy needs of our body.
Physical activity plays a major role in preventing the increase in blood sugar. During exercise, glucose is consumed by muscle tissue, which reduces its level in the blood.
In a recent study, Danish scientists have shown that, for example, regular cycling reduces the risk of diabetes by twenty percent.
Optimal sleep duration
Regular lack of sleep leads to fluctuations in blood sugar levels. All because of the release of contrainsular stress hormones, which occurs when the body can not fully relax at night.
It is believed that the optimal duration of sleep for men should be 7 hours and 50 minutes, and for women – 7 hours and 40 minutes. According to scientists, it is this duration of sleep that provides the best state of health and the shortest time spent on the sick-list.
Your doctor Yevgeny Snegir
I thank Eugene for his story. It is always valuable to receive such information from a qualified professional who can be fully trusted. But also let’s not forget about your own sanity and wisely take care of your health and well-being.
And for the soul, we will see today a very beautiful video with beautiful music. My love for you .