The immaturity of a joint is its slow development, whereas dysplasia is the wrong formation of a joint. Previously, both of these conditions were called dysplasia, whereas now these concepts are increasingly demarcating, which in itself is already good, since the management of such children changes in the direction of more benign methods. However, if you start the disease, then you can get all the charms of dysplasia, if suddenly a mistake in the diagnosis, because the line between diseases is very thin. Today dysplasia of the hip joints is quite common, so not only parents of young children, but also expectant mothers and fathers should be informed.
Dysplasia specialists are divided into several types: from physiological or pathological immaturity of the hip joints to dislocation or subluxation. Immaturity of the joints is the least dangerous degree of dysplasia. However, if the disease is left unnoticed and started, then a delay in ossification will follow and the articular cartilage will not turn into a bone in due time.
Over time, the newborn grows, and the disorder in its joint remains, since without treatment it does not disappear by itself. In the future, it threatens the occurrence of hip joint arthrosis, and, therefore, gait disturbance, and a feeling of pain in the joint.
The most dangerous types of hip dysplasia include subluxation or pre-excretion of the joint, that is, its underdevelopment without displacement of the femoral head.
The most difficult type of dysplasia is a dislocation of the femoral head. If it is not treated and does not pay attention to it, it can turn into irreversible disorders – shortening the leg and gait disturbance.
Also later may develop a false joint. In other words, the joint may develop towards the dislocated head of the thigh. Subsequently, the child may be impaired motor development and frequent pain in the joint, and shortening of the legs, can reach 5-10 centimeters.
The main signs of the disease
Dysplasia should be detected in time and subjected to treatment prescribed by a specialist. Young mothers need to know about a number of signs that indicate the presence of dysplasia in a child:
- The legs of the newborn according to the norm should be retracted to the sides at 150-170 degrees, they should be symmetrical. With a smaller leg angle, it is necessary to contact an orthopedist to confirm or refute the diagnosis.
- If parents observe different lengths of the legs of a child, then this is also a reason for an examination by a doctor.
- Asymmetrical gluteal or inguinal folds should be alerted.
- Another sign of immaturity of the hip joint is a “click” with a certain movement of the baby’s leg.
How to timely recognize dysplasia and immaturity of the joint?
Subluxation and dislocation are detected in the maternity hospital often already at the birth of a child immediately, whereas the joint immaturity, due to the fact that it is less pronounced, is determined after a couple of weeks after birth. With timely treatment in both cases, usually there is a complete correction of the functions of the joint. With a later diagnosis of the disease (six months or more), it becomes much more difficult to cure a child.
As soon as possible, identifying the immaturity of the hip joint in your newborn increases the chances of successfully overcoming this ailment.
Routine examination should take place at the orthopedist in one, three, six and twelve months. Diagnosis is possible at any of these stages, so they should not be neglected. Dysplasia can be bilateral, in which case it becomes even harder to recognize.
Just do not trust the examination of an orthopedic surgeon, as it is difficult to feel the hip joint. Therefore, we advise you to safely go on an ultrasound scan of the hip joint when the newborn is one month old. This method is completely harmless, and besides it will determine with accuracy whether the child has a pathology. Also, parents themselves should regularly inspect their baby.
Immediately contact your orthopedic doctor if you observe asymmetry of the inguinal or gluteal folds in your child, not the same length of the legs or clicks when moving.
Dysplasia is a congenital disease, which is a consequence of:
- unbalanced nutrition of a pregnant woman, deficiency of vitamins, calcium, which contribute to the proper formation of connective tissue;
- genetic predisposition;
- infectious and endocrine diseases of women during pregnancy;
- late pregnancy;
- threatened abortion;
- protracted or fast delivery;
- pelvic fetus.
As a rule, an orthopedist discovers dysplasia in the first month of a baby’s life. Therefore, timely treatment gives a positive result. However, the difficulty is that at first dysplasia does not manifest itself. Symptoms begin to occur only under certain circumstances, for example, at 3 or 6 months. Dysplasia may occur due to tight swaddling or not performing gymnastics for newborns. By the way, the consequences of tight swaddling in the past decades are now manifested in adults in the form of arthrosis.
The most unpleasant manifestation of dysplasia is the period when the child begins to take the first steps. Parents observe gait irregularities and detect the disease in their child. In this case, experts will advise surgery.
If by the month of their life an immaturity of the hip joint or dysplasia was discovered and treatment was started in time, then by half a year all functions of the joint should be restored, even in case of a serious deviation from the norm. Dysplasia, detected in the early stages, is treated with the help of special tires and struts that spread the legs in different directions. This method is used to stimulate the proper development of the joint. Also, an orthopedist can prescribe vitamin therapy and professional massage. Also relevant is the use of magnetic therapy and electrophoresis with calcium and phosphorus. These procedures help to improve blood circulation in the hip joints.
It would be good to find a good osteopath specialist who can restore the balance of the bone structure with soft manual effects. The main thing is that the specialist is truly experienced, and there are still few of those in Russia.
In order to prevent dysplasia or immaturity of the hip joints, your baby is recommended to use wide swaddling. In general, the “frog” pose is very useful and convenient for the newborn, it should be in it for several hours a day. Mom should do the exercises with the newborn, which the orthopedist will recommend to you. This gymnastics is not difficult and does not require special skills. However, it is still better if the specialist shows you how to do it. From tight swaddling better to give up.
Widespread swaddling of the newborn
Many future parents have heard the phrase wide swaddling, but not everyone knows what it is. Extensive swaddling is important for the treatment and prevention of immaturity of the hip joint, and it is performed as follows:
- fold the thick flannel diaper with a triangle and put it right angle down;
- put a diaper on your baby and put it on a diaper;
- bend his legs about 80 degrees;
- wrap the legs with both ends of the diaper in turn, and fix the lower corner on the tummy;
- to keep the diaper better, you can swaddle your baby with another diaper over it.
If dysplasia is already running, functional gypsum dressings are applied in the treatment of the child, which are applied to the legs in a certain position. This method allows you to properly form the bones.
The penultimate method of treatment of dysplasia is traction on the bed using an orthopedic framework in stationary conditions. Perhaps, this method will seem conservative to someone and, nevertheless, it is very effective. If this solution does not help get rid of the disease, then experts advise surgery.
After completion of treatment, the child should still be seen by an orthopedist. Up to five years, the child should be shown to a specialist at least twice a year. Then you can visit the doctor once a year. When a person matures, he still needs to visit an orthopedist.
Remember! The key to a successful deliverance from the immaturity of the hip joint and dysplasia is not only experienced doctors, but also the patience of the baby’s parents. It is very important that mom and dad fulfill all the recommendations of specialists exactly and then their little one will enjoy life for many years.