How to have a nipple organization

1. Theme of the lesson:

Prevention of dental anomalies during fetal development.

Prevention of dental anomalies associated with artificial feeding.

2. Purpose of the lesson:

The student should know:

1. Anatomical and physiological structure of the dentition.

2. The procedure and timing of the eruption of milk and permanent teeth.

3. The concept of bite. Types of bite

4. Describe the signs of central occlusion.

5. Age features of the development of the dentition

The student should be able to:

3. To characterize the signs of central occlusion.

The student should be familiar with:

– with the causes of dental-anomalies during fetal development,

– with how artificial feeding affects the normal formation of the dental system,

– with preventive measures aimed at preventing the development of dentition anomalies that are formed during the period of intrauterine development,

– with prophylactic measures aimed at preventing the development of dental-maxillary anomalies associated with artificial feeding.

3. Learning Content:

The prenatal period is one of the most important in the development of the human body, including the dentofacial system. It should be considered as fundamental, largely determining sustainability, the correct tab and the subsequent development of all organs and systems of a child’s body. The most critical period for the occurrence of anomalies and malformations of the facial skeleton, jaws and organs of the oral cavity are the first two months of pregnancy.

The reasons contributing to the formation of abnormalities of a non-inherited nature can be gynecological pathology: fibromyoma, chronic adnexitis, small intervals between births, many, repeated threat of abortion.

Dental anomalies also occur as a result of malnutrition and illness of a pregnant woman, the wrong position of the fetus. A significant role is played by the complications of pregnancy and the use of drugs by the expectant mother. In a significant proportion of women, pregnancy is complicated by toxicosis of the first and second half, exacerbation of extragenital pathology, colds and viral diseases.

Some drugs, especially tetracycline antibiotics, have an adverse effect on the hard tissues of the teeth. Tetracycline, penetrating through the placenta, accumulates in the tissues of the teeth of the fetus, painting them in yellow or grayish-brown color. Anticonvulsants, minor tranquilizers, hypnotics and some other medications may contribute to cleft lip, alveolar process and palate.

The cause of congenital deformities can be squeezing clothes, unsustainable hard work of a pregnant woman, the use of alcohol, nicotine, drugs. So, alcohol, easily penetrating through the placenta, leads to intrauterine growth retardation, weight loss of the child at birth. The parents of patients with chronic alcoholism, newborns often have craniofacial deformities, disorders of the central nervous system.

Irrational diet is very significantly reflected on the development of the fetus. For the full development of the dental system requires an adequate amount of vitamins A, D, B, C, calcium, phosphorus and

Of great importance for the proper formation of hard tissues of the teeth and facial skeleton is the optimal intake of fluoride into the body of a pregnant woman. It mainly comes from drinking water. The optimal fluorine content in drinking water is 0.8-1.2 mg / l. Insufficient intake of fluorine contributes to the development of caries, and excess – fluorosis. A significant increase in fluoride in drinking water leads to an increase in the number of dental anomalies.

How to have a nipple organization

Prevention of dental anomalies associated with the causes acting in the antenatal period is the most difficult problem. This complexity is determined by social, environmental, educational and other factors. However, this work is extremely necessary to carry out. The center of this work should be female consultation. The work of the dentist is coordinated and carried out in close contact with other specialists. The main efforts should be aimed at improving the body of a pregnant woman, forming a healthy lifestyle, organizing nutrition, optimizing work and rest, as well as clothing, eliminating unhealthy habits (alcohol, smoking and

It is necessary to instill in the pregnant woman the rules of regular oral hygiene. Be sure to conduct a thorough reorganization of the oral cavity of the future mother.

With a pregnant woman you need to work on the proper upbringing of the newborn in the antenatal clinic. This should include, first of all, health education on the causes of the development of dental anomalies and deformities, their manifestations and methods of prevention, rational treatment and balanced nutrition of the mother and child, the need for breastfeeding, proper artificial feeding of the child when it is impossible to breastfeed: the right way to feed it when feeding , preventing the pressure of the bottle neck on the alveolar process, the correct selection of the opening in the nipple, the length of the nipple and the degree of its introduction into the oral cavity, on Luden regularity of swallowing.


Man belongs to the highest class of the animal world – mammals. The name of the extensive class itself speaks of the exceptional importance of feeding with milk in the early stages of postnatal development.

The need for natural breastfeeding of a child is determined, first of all, by the exceptional value of mother’s milk, and the favorable effect of the breastfeeding mechanism on the development of the dentofacial system.

Accordingly, in view of the upcoming feeding, the baby is born without teeth. Special elements of the oral cavity of the newborn allow for the production of effective sucking movements – these are the forehead-shaped lips, the gingival membrane, the pronounced palatal transverse folds and the fatty bedding of the cheeks. During feeding, the child’s lips tightly enclose the areolar part of the breast and, thus, form the front closure valve. The back flap is formed by closing the lowered soft palate and tongue. The distal (posterior) position of the lower jaw and the weak expression of the articular tubercle of the temporomandibular joint, as a new phylogenetic formation, make it possible to freely extend the lower jaw, which is necessary in the act of suckling the breast. the muscles of the tongue and the bottom of the mouth. Especially important is the stimulation of the growth of the mandible and its movement forward to form the orthognathic ratio of the jaws.

At first, the sucking movements alternate with swallowing 1: 1, then 1.3: 1. This is important for the future transition from the infantile type of swallowing to somatic, which is necessary for the balanced formation of jaws and dentition. The time of one natural feeding is on average 20 minutes.

Artificial feeding allows two major errors: a large hole in the nipple and the wrong shape of the nipple.

When using a nipple with a large hole, feeding time is reduced to 5-6 minutes, as milk flows freely from the bottle. The child practically does not suck, but only swallows food. At the same time, the correct development of the dentition is disrupted. The lower jaw lags behind in growth, does not move forward to the correct position relative to the upper jaw; in the future, the infantile type of swallowing can be fixed. At the same time, there is a tension of mimic muscles, absorption of the corners of the mouth and lower lip, double chin contour as a result of incorrect position of the tongue. During swallowing, it is repelled not from the dentition, but from the lips and cheeks, while being located between the dentition. This leads to tension of mimic muscles, suction of cheeks, tension of superficial muscles of the neck.

Distal occlusion (distal occlusion) and deep occlusion most often develop from dental anomalies. So it was found that in children with artificial feeding distal occlusion occurs 2.3 times more often than in children with natural feeding. As well as a deep bite in preschool children who received artificial feeding in the breast period, much more often than in breastfed babies. It is important to remember that as the child grows, the distal and deep bite occupy an important place in the occurrence of diseases of the temporomandibular joints.

It is necessary, when artificial feeding with a thin, heated needle, to make 1-3 holes in the nipple so that the liquid from the upturned bottle flows in drops, and not in a stream. The child should suck actively, making efforts for 15-20 minutes. During the feeding of the child must be kept on the hands, as when breastfeeding. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the bottle does not press on the chin and does not assume a vertical position.

However, not everything is so simple and subject to the rules of artificial feeding. With a small hole in the nipple of the wall with its active sucking subside and there are long pauses between sucking movements. This is especially tedious for premature and weak children.

Great importance in artificial feeding is the shape of the nipples. The long nipple, pushing the soft palate up, prevents the formation of the back valve.

According to the study

for full-term babies from birth to 4 months inclusive;

for full-term babies from 5 to 12 months; for premature babies.

In addition, in the bottle-nipple system, it is desirable to have an air valve.

Without any doubt, from all the above follows a simple and quite definite conclusion: the child needs natural breastfeeding. If you still need artificial feeding, it is highly desirable to follow the recommendations. When the very first signs of the possibility of development of dental anomalies appear, it is necessary to connect special methods. One of the simplest and most effective methods is myogymnastics.

4. List of practical works, visual aids and TSO:

– visual aids: tables, diagrams.

5. Practical work:

The name of the practical work:

– routine examination, questioning and history taking;

– filling out a patient record

Objective: learn to carry out routine inspection.

Methods of work:

Necessary materials: survey card, ballpoint pen, gloves, mask.

The order of work: survey with clarification of the qualitative composition of food,

preventive examination, filling out a survey card.

Performance and evaluation criteria: a well-filled survey card.

6. The list of questions to check the initial level of knowledge:

1. Anatomical and physiological structure of the dentition.

2. The procedure and timing of the eruption of milk and permanent teeth.

3. The concept of bite. Types of bite

4. Describe the signs of central occlusion.

How to have a nipple organization

5. Signs of orthognathic bite.

7. The list of questions for checking the final level of knowledge:

1. Endogenous factors (in the period of intrauterine development) of the risk of anomalies.

2. Exogenous factors (artificial feeding) of the risk of anomalies.

How to have a nipple organization

3. Anomalies of individual teeth.

5. Prevention of developmental anomaly due to exposure to endogenous factors.

6. Prevention of developmental anomaly due to artificial feeding.

8. Chronocard study classes:

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