A wound is a violation of the integrity of the skin, mucous membrane or organs of the body. Wounds are among the most commonly observed injuries in humans. They form one fifth of all injuries. Improper wound care can lead to complications. How to treat a wound?
The characteristic signs of each wound are bleeding, pain, loss, or tissue damage.
From the volume of the wound, from its appearance, from the state of the edges and from the depth, one can often determine the way it occurs even without the testimony of the victim himself.
Wounds are divided into:
- superficial – shallow, when only one skin is damaged,
- deep – exciting subcutaneous tissue, muscle, bone.
Depending on the size of the wound are divided into small, medium and large.
Wounds differ by the way of occurrence:
1. Sliced – caused by a sharp object, most often with a knife, razor, glass, etc .; they are characterized by smooth edges and bleed moderately or severely.
2. Chopped – applied with a sharp lowered object; in appearance they resemble incised wounds, but differ in greater depth.
3. Chipped – applied with a knife, dagger, nail, fork or other sharp objects; these are narrow and deep wounds.
4. Bruised – occur under the action of pressure, when struck with a blunt object, with a fall or compression of the body; wound edges are uneven, bleeding is weak.
5. Ripped – result from the rupture of the skin during its tension; the edges of such wounds are uneven, the bleeding is weak, and considerable pain is noted.
6. Bite wounds – in appearance resemble bruised or lacerated wounds; Often, along with the saliva of rabid animals, infection gets into them.
7. Gunshot – caused by bullets and shell fragments; these wounds are characterized by the presence of a small rounded inlet – the place of entry of the bullet, and a large outlet – the place of the exit of the bullet from the body. If a bullet penetrates the body and has two openings, then in this case they speak of a through wound: when a bullet gets stuck in the body, they speak of a blind wound.
With any injury, the greatest danger to the body lies in the bleeding and infection. The value of immediate first aid is great because its task is to stop the bleeding and prevent infection of the wound.
Bleeding. In cases where the blood from the wound flows out, we are talking about external bleeding, especially significant with chopped and deep cut wounds.
When stab and gunshot wounds, as well as wounds of internal organs that occur when hit with a blunt object, there are ruptures of the liver, spleen, kidneys and large vessels. In such cases, internal bleeding occurs, which means bleeding in the body cavity.
Infection. Most often, the wound is infected with pyogenic bacteria. Millions of bacteria are on the surface of the skin; their amount per 1 mm² of unwashed skin reaches 200 million. When a skin is suddenly wounded with a stone, knife, needle, thorn or thorn, billions of bacteria penetrate into the wound, which then causes a purulent inflammatory process that complicates the treatment and healing of the wound; in such cases, the wounds heal with disfiguring scars. With improper treatment of the wound with unwashed hands or with the use of a contaminated dressing, infection of the wound with microbes increases even more.
As a rule, wounds are infected with pyogenic bacteria, but there are cases of infection and other microbes. It is extremely dangerous to infect a wound with sticks of tetanus falling into the wound from the ground, dust, and droppings. In such cases, the disease occurs tetanus, manifested by the reduction of the muscles of the neck, in connection with which there are difficulties in chewing and swallowing, mixing perioral, dorsal muscles and, finally, cramps of the respiratory muscles and suffocation. If you are suspected of having tetanus, you should immediately begin treatment – otherwise the victim will inevitably die. Most often, tetanus occurs in agricultural and traffic injuries. An effective means of combating this disease is prophylactic inoculation of tetanus toxoid.
Gas gangrene. Gas gangrene occurs when a wound is infected by microbes that multiply in infected wounds without air. When squeezing the wound area, crepitus (creak) is heard, caused by gas bubbles that form. The affected skin is red; the patient has a high fever.
If gas gangrene microbes in large numbers penetrate from the wound into the bloodstream, then in the absence of timely medical intervention the victim inevitably dies.
The lack of proper and timely treatment of the wound can be fatal for the victim. Therefore, when providing first aid, one should never forget about these two important factors.
How to treat a wound
Proper wound care prevents the occurrence of complications and shortens the wound healing time by almost three times.
Gauze, cotton wool, a bandage and some disinfectant (iodine tincture, iodinol, sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, betadine, brilliant green, hydrogen peroxide) are necessary for wound treatment.
The wound dressing should be carried out with clean, washed hands.
Skin around the wound First, wipe twice or thrice with gauze or cotton moistened with a disinfectant solution to prevent bacteria from entering the wound from surrounding skin.
Then the wound is washed. hydrogen peroxide and bandaged.
In extreme cases, when there is neither gauze nor bandage, the superficial wound can be covered with a plastic bandage-acutina overlay, and then tied with a clean, unused handkerchief.
If the wound is very bleeding, then first aid begins with stopping the bleeding, and then begin dressing the wound. In the absence of a disinfectant solution, it is sufficient to cover the wound from above simply with clean gauze, then apply a layer of cotton wool and bandage the entire wound with a bandage.
Wound can not be rinsed with water, and especially with alcohol or iodine tincture. Disinfecting solution, falling into the wound, causes the death of damaged cells, thereby causing significant pain.
The wound cannot be filled with any powders, and also no ointment can be applied to it; it is also forbidden to put cotton wool directly on the wound!
If any tissues — the brain, intestines — emerge from the wound, then they are covered from above with pure gauze, but in no case are they pressed inward.
In case of extensive wounds of the extremities, the wounded limb should be immobilized.
For any relatively deep wound, a qualified surgical treatment is necessary. In this regard, the care provider must ensure that the victim is transported to a medical facility.