High blood pressure
The blood pressure of an adult is considered to be elevated, if for two consecutive days the average exceeds 149/90 mm Hg – this limit is set by WHO. For physicians, the lower index is more important – the diastolic pressure that occurs during relaxation of the heart muscle. The optimal blood pressure is -120/80 mmHg. Art., normal – 130/85 mm Hg. Art. Hypertension is of three degrees: mild – 140-159 / 90-99 mm Hg. Art., average – 160-179 / 100-109 mm Hg. Art. and high – 180-200 / 110-119 mm Hg. Art.
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Diastolic pressure is 90 mm of mercury. Art. means that the mercury column has risen to 90 mm. Although modern measuring devices do not contain mercury, however, the indicators correspond to the old system of measurement – so familiar to both doctors and patients.
Hypertension – high blood pressure,
In men, hypertension is more common. The probability of occurrence of this disease increases with age. Men under 50 are more susceptible to this disease, and after 50 years – women.
There are no symptoms at first, but later appears:
- Bleeding from the nose.
- Blurred vision
- Anxiety, convulsions.
- Heart failure.
- Chest pain.
In some medical directory met: Blood pressure is considered normal, if it is 100 + human age – this formula is wrong, it can not be applied.
The most common cause of hypertension is unknown. Such hypertension is called primary. Its occurrence is influenced by food, genetic factors, hormonal metabolism, stress. It depends on the gender and age of the person. About 5% of people suffer from secondary hypertension that occurs with kidney, heart, and blood vessels. Hypertension can cause some medications.
If the doctor says about the presence of primary hypertension, as a rule, the reasons for the increase in pressure are unclear. A temporary or permanent increase can be caused by a number of reasons – overweight, salty foods, alcohol, smoking, lack of movement, stress, noise, heredity, and
Hypertension increases the likelihood of damage to the brain, heart and blood vessels. The average life expectancy is also reduced (especially if there are other risk factors, for example, high blood fat, overweight).
There are many drugs that increase blood pressure, especially with their long-term use. For example, it may increase when taking hormonal contraceptives. Smokers, overweight women are more likely to have heart disease.
At the beginning they try to treat without the use of drugs. In the event that the diastolic pressure rises to 130 mm. Hg Art., prescribed drugs. In some cases, reducing pressure helps:
- weight loss;
- reducing salt intake;
- complete abandonment of alcohol and cigarettes;
- autogenic training;
- lack of stress;
- abstinence from the use of hormonal contraceptives.
If these measures are insufficient or the patient does not fulfill the prescriptions, then in such cases pressure-lowering medications are prescribed. However, the patient, using these drugs, should know that drugs often have side effects. Previously it was believed that drugs should be consumed throughout life. Today, doctors say that with successful treatment, there is no need for medication, especially if a person leads a healthy lifestyle.
Less salt! More potassium! This is the most important principle of nutrition for patients with high blood pressure. If you decide to reduce salt intake or even abandon it, then at first all the food will seem tasteless. Taste buds are very used to salt. The taste of food can be improved using greens and spices. Canned foods contain a lot of salt. The use of drugs that reduce pressure, contributes to the loss of potassium, so you need to use products with its high content. These are potatoes, bananas, oranges, raisins, dried apricots and other dried fruits, as well as nuts.
With a slight increase in blood pressure, first of all, you need to try to lead a healthy lifestyle and give up bad habits. For this, support from loved ones is sometimes necessary.
A person with hypertension should eat right. To facilitate the treatment of the disease, many patients are advised to lose weight. For this purpose, a special diet or physical therapy can be assigned. The formation of practical skills should take place under the guidance of specialists. To improve overall well-being, it is recommended to visit sports clubs. In addition, you can run and exercise.
Doctors often measure blood pressure even in the absence of complaints from the patient. However, for headache, dizziness, blurred vision, nosebleeds, such a measurement should be carried out. If a patient with hypertension suddenly started to have convulsions, coordination of movements was disturbed, vomiting or pain in the heart area appeared – life-threatening symptoms, then you should consult a doctor!
Having determined hypertension, the doctor first of all will find out if the patient has other diseases, and also will ask the patient about what medicines he takes, how he eats, bad habits, will try to find out possible violations of fat metabolism. The doctor needs to know whether the patient had hypertension before, and whether he was treated for this. The doctor will ask about the working conditions of the patient and the microclimate in his family. In addition, he will measure the height, weight and pulse of the patient, check the fundus of the eye, perform a laboratory analysis of blood and urine.
A healthy lifestyle, normal body weight, physical activity, healthy food, and moderate alcohol and tobacco use help regulate blood pressure.