Hepatitis B Vaccines
For the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis B vaccines are used (Endzheriks B, Combiotech, Evuks, etc.).
How does hepatitis B vaccine work?
Vaccines are a solution containing the main immunogenic protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBs Ag. Antibodies to this protein (i.e., to the hepatitis B virus) begin to be produced two weeks after vaccine administration. After three vaccine injections, immunity is produced in 99% of cases.
How to get vaccinated against hepatitis B?
The scheme of the vaccine is as follows: after the first vaccination, after 1 month they make the second vaccination, and 5 months after the second – the third. 1 ml of the vaccine is injected intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle of the shoulder.
Are there any problems after vaccination?
Current vaccines do not cause serious adverse reactions. Possible pain at the injection site, a slight fever, very rarely – allergic reactions. These phenomena quickly pass by themselves. The overall frequency of any adverse events is 2-5%.
In general, the medical community assesses registered hepatitis B vaccines as effective and safe in children and adults.
Do I need to confirm the effectiveness of vaccination with special tests?
With mass standard vaccinations of children and adults, a special examination is not performed. However, it is necessary, at least in the following cases (as recommended by CDC):
- immunocompromised, including hemodialysis patients
- vaccinated by buttock injection
- babies born to infected mothers (with a positive HBs antigen test)
- medical staff working with blood
- Persons who have sex with patients with chronic hepatitis B
The survey includes the determination of antibody titer after 1-2 months. after administration of 3 doses of vaccine. The result of the examination, which will confirm reliable protection – is the antibody titer to HBS Ag of at least 10 mU / ml.
How reliable is the protection against hepatitis B with vaccines?
The vaccine reliably protects against infection with hepatitis B. Threefold administration of the vaccine according to this scheme leads to the formation of specific antibodies that prevent the development of hepatitis B disease in 98% of those vaccinated.
Immunity persists for at least 8-10 years, but often remains for life.
Who should get vaccinated?
Vaccination needs to be done to all.
Hepatitis B vaccination is introduced into the vaccination schedule of children (infants) in most countries of the world. It can be done right in the maternity hospital.
According to the regulatory documents of the Ministry of Health of Russia,
- the first vaccine newborns receive during the first 12 hours of life
- second vaccination is performed at the age of one month
- the third vaccination is performed at the age of six months
A special scheme is provided for children who have given birth to HBsAg or who have hepatitis B mothers.
Previously vaccinated children are vaccinated at the age of 13. But it is also important to vaccinate adult patients infected with other hepatotropic viruses (for example, HCV), family members of patients with chronic hepatitis B, medical workers and students of medical universities, all working with blood products and producing them, patients on hemodialysis ), people who use drugs and other risk groups.