In winter, we are all a bit extreme. Well aware of the slowness of our utilities, we often behave as if there are no ice, no snow drifts, or vile porridge of snow and sand under our feet. As a result, we get injuries.
The most common cause of injuries in the winter is playing catch-up with public transport. At the same time, we all understand that running after a bus or a bus is harmful: firstly, you still cannot catch up, secondly, you create a lot of problems for yourself. The obvious ones are stress and stress on the cardiovascular system, as well as trauma. In a state where you cannot control the safety of movement, you step on the icy sidewalk, you slip … When young people fall, ankle fractures in the ankle joint most often occur, and they require fairly serious and long-term treatment. Or a broken arm, in case a person, falling, manages to put his arm forward, protecting his face from the “encounter” with the pavement. In older people, the proximal femur often breaks down. Well, by itself, almost half of the active population of St. Petersburg gets bruises, sprains and stretches over the winter.
What to do if you hurt your leg
If you fell and, over the pain, with oops and akhami went further, watch your condition. A bruise that seems harmless can cause major problems: a bruise to the chest in a woman is fraught with tumors, and concussion can cause headaches, decreased vision and hearing, and other neurological pathologies.
Fracture or severe dislocation is usually determined without problems: sharp pain, increasing swelling and the inability to normally move the injured arm or leg. If you are in the city, you should immediately call an ambulance. In the suburbs with the ambulance is more difficult, so the victim should be given first aid correctly, otherwise you can aggravate the patient’s condition.
In no case can not pull the arm or leg, twist, align. These uncontrollable actions can only harm, of course, if they are not performed by a doctor who is able to assess the situation in “field” conditions. Everyone remembers that in case of a fracture it is necessary to impose a tire, or rather, to create peace for the injured organ. This does not mean at all that you need to look for a stick for fixation, it is enough to wind your aching leg to a healthy one, for example, a scarf, and a hand to the chest. But all this must be done very carefully, so that a person does not writhe in pain.
We must not forget that while the victim was assisted, all this time he was lying in the snow. Therefore, if there is damage allows, he needs to help move to a warm room, or move it to some kind of blanket to isolate from the cold ground. To relieve pain, you can take any anesthetic (Nurofen, Ketanov).
If the injury is not serious and you know for sure that this is not a fracture, then you should help yourself before going to the doctor, you should ensure your foot is calm. Rest for foot means bed rest.
Cold is a very simple effective remedy in the first 2-3 days after injury, it relieves pain, swelling, restores blood circulation in the damaged place. Remove from the refrigerator all that you find in it – wrap the frozen meat or vegetables in polyethylene, then in a towel and put in place of the injury. Keep – without fanaticism: no longer than 20-30 minutes, then a break for two hours and again – cold. If a hematoma (bruise) has formed, use Troxevasin Gel to dissolve them.
However, if the leg (arm) is deformed, or it hurts to move, it is very cold and hurts badly, and the self-help attempts mentioned above do not bring relief for 5-6 hours, then you should seek specialized help. Otherwise, everything can end in tears – if it is a fracture, then you will find the wrong fusion, and the worst thing is the loss of the function of the arm or leg. And if sensitivity is lost, then their loss is also possible. That is, the consequences can be very different: from the situation when the “self has passed” to the lethal outcome.
Fall with focus on the arm
This is when in flight a person manages to push his arm forward and falls, leaning on an unbent hand. In such cases, so-called “extensor” fractures or injuries of the forearm in the lower third often occur. If this is a fracture, then the brush quickly and strongly swells, mainly from the outside of the wrist. On its backside, a bayonet deformation is visible, it is painful to move the joint, and often it is impossible. Of course, in such a situation, you should immediately call an ambulance or get to the emergency room under your own power, if possible.
First aid is pain relief and correct fixation. It is necessary to immobilize the wrist joint and fingers. If there is no tablet on hand, a thin hardcover book will go. It should be attached to the palm of your hand and pinned (fastened with a scarf or kerchief) to the tire. Hang the scarf or scarf to the neck so that the arm in the elbow is bent at an angle of 90 degrees.
Falling on a straightened arm can damage not only the hand, but also the shoulder, elbow joint. Injuries can be different: bruise, sprain, tendon rupture, dislocation.
With bruise of the shoulder joint and shoulder there is an outpouring of blood into the joint cavity (hemarthrosis). Bruising and hemarthrosis are accompanied by severe pain, especially when the joint is moving and feeling. In the area of the joints swelling forms, their contours become smooth, sometimes a bruise is visible under the skin.
The result of a fall may be rupture of large deltoid muscle (she puts her hand to the side). This injury can be determined by soft tissue edema, hemorrhage of the lateral surface of the shoulder. And also for severe pain when feeling the joint or when trying to move the shoulder, take it to the side. First aid for such injuries – immobilization (hand to hang on the neck on the scarf), taking painkillers, ice to the muscle. In no case can you do anything else – this injury is difficult to distinguish from a fracture, so you should urgently consult a doctor.
With sprains and muscles shoulder joint pain occurs mainly when moving in a certain direction. When the tendons rupture, the shoulder area is sore from tension, for example, even minor weights are lifting. Pain in these cases can be relieved by the use of painkillers and cold (ice) compresses.
The most characteristic and very dangerous injury for the elderly is a fracture of the proximal femoral neck. So if you saw that an elderly woman slipped, fell and could not get up, do not pass by. If she complains of pain in the ankle, this is one story, osteoporosis in the elderly leads to brittle bones that break easily. The victim should at least be dragged to the wall, if it is not possible to bring into the room, and call the ambulance. When the pain is concentrated in the thigh, even moving it is not worth it (if it did not happen on the street) – immediately call an ambulance.
Fall on the fifth point
Fractures or injuries of the coccyx are accompanied by damage to the so-called sciatic tubercles. If a man or a woman of a nonmathal age suffered from a fall, then specific treatment is not required. The doctor will prescribe bed rest and drug treatment. If a woman has to give birth, and the tailbone was deformed during a fall, then big problems are possible, it needs to be adjusted, seriously treated.
It is very dangerous if, after a fall, pain appears not in the coccyx area, but higher – in the lower back or cervical spine (manifested by headaches, not just pains in the neck). This suggests that the person was not a direct, but indirect injury. The consequences can be very different – from acute hernia development to vertebral fracture. In case of pain in the spine after a fall, you should immediately seek the help of a traumatologist. According to the results of the examination, he will either prescribe the necessary treatment, or refer him to another specialist. Diagnosis is appointed after the inspection: x-ray, CT scan, MRI.
Drop and hit the head on the ice
If after an unsuccessful fall, loss of consciousness, nausea, vomiting, headache are observed, bed rest is required and a mandatory visit to a doctor is required. But even if there are no such symptoms, and the person after the fall does not remember how he fell, or who raised him – this is the first sign of a concussion, a doctor must also be consulted. The principles of first aid for concussion Hippocrates has formed. It is cold, hunger and peace plus symptomatic treatment.
With any injury, the main thing is not to panic and remember that the worst thing that could happen is behind. Ahead – healing process. Even if you have not planned it for the near future …
How to avoid becoming a victim of ice
1. Exercise to fall. If you feel that you have slipped and cannot keep your balance, pull your head into your shoulders, press your elbows to your sides, straighten your back, bend your legs slightly. Since you are falling, then try to roll on its side, not putting forward straight arms.
Fall on your back? Press your chin to your chest, and place your hands wider so that they serve as a shock absorber in the fall.
If you slipped on the stairs and fly down, take care of your face and head, if possible, group together.
Of course, remembering these tips when you are already falling is difficult. Maybe worth practicing? Our utilities are unlikely to work better in the coming years, so no one is insured against falling.
2. Drunk fall more often. Do not believe those who say that someone is laying straw in a drunk place. It is not true. Most injuries occur to people in a drunken state. Therefore, taking on the chest, stay home.
3. Resist the physical laws. Reduce the slip and compete with gravity by following simple rules. Choose shoes with non-slip, better grooved sole. Women should refuse for this period from high heels and even more so from the stilettos. Look at your feet. And if there is a slippery road ahead, step on the ground with the entire foot.