Deformity of the gallbladder in children is an anomaly of its shape. The frequency is about 25% among the child population. Due to the deformation, the outflow of bile is disturbed, as a result, it stagnates. Thus, the conditions for the inflammatory process, the stone formation in the gallbladder. Most often, this pathology clinically manifests itself in adolescents, when due to various constrictions, excesses, stagnation has already formed. In this regard, knowledge about why the deformity of the gallbladder begins in children, the causes, treatment, and the symptoms of this disease become very relevant. Consider them on
Causes of gallbladder deformity
Gallbladder deformity may be congenital or acquired. If the pathology is congenital, then the reason lies in the violation of fetal development. The digestive organs are laid in the first trimester of pregnancy, then their differentiation occurs. Any outside influence during this period can disrupt this process: acute infectious or chronic maternal diseases, taking certain medications, smoking (including passive), taking alcoholic beverages, etc.
If this pathology is acquired, then various inflammatory processes in the gallbladder or the digestive system, which lead to the deformation of not only the gallbladder itself, but also the cervical ductal zone, as well as the formation of pockets, can serve as causes. This violates the passage (outflow) of bile, it stagnates, which creates favorable conditions for the development of inflammation and stone formation.
Sometimes it is difficult to determine which deformation is acquired and which is inherent. For their precise differentiation, it is necessary to conduct ultrasonography (ultrasound) before and after taking a choleretic breakfast. When the pathology is congenital, the unusual shape of the gallbladder, its constriction and bends are preserved after eating. If acquired, the shape of the bubble changes.
Deformities of the gallbladder in children, regardless of the reasons that led to their development, are in the form of constrictions, diverticula (baggy protrusion of a limited portion of a hollow organ), bends, or have a very bizarre shape.
Symptoms of gallbladder deformity in children
Pathology may not manifest itself as a pretty long time, but over time, as the bile stagnates, all the symptoms characteristic of biliary dyskinesia or stones develop. It is important to note an important role in the development of the clinical picture of the nervous system. Depending on the prevalence of the parasympathetic or sympathetic nervous system, there are two variants of the course of the disease with different symptoms:
• Hypertensive-hyperkinetic option. It is characterized by paroxysmal course of the disease. Intense pain occurs in the abdomen, their appearance is triggered by errors in food (ingestion of rich, fatty and fried foods, seasonings, etc.), excessive exercise, fast walking, and jogging. After the impact of the trigger (provoking factor), the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves violently. Reception of antispasmodic pain relieves pain. • Hypotonic-hypokinetic option. It is characterized by long, aching pain in the right hypochondrium. Children older indicate the presence of bitterness in the morning in the mouth, occasionally nausea, belching. Appetite reduced.
During the exacerbation of both variants of the course of the disease, all symptoms of intoxication may develop due to the addition of an infection: an increase in body temperature, aching joints, and vomiting with an admixture of bile.
The main tasks are to adjust the outflow of bile, stop a painful symptom, remove the inflammatory process. It is important to remember that the choice of the course of the disease plays an important role in the choice of treatment tactics.
• Bed rest at the time of exacerbation is required. As the pain subsides, the symptoms of intoxication widen it. Plentiful drinking is prescribed except for mineral waters, they are contraindicated in the acute period, as they can increase pain.
• Medical nutrition. During an exacerbation, a milk diet is preferred. Allowed apples, grapes, watermelon, not a sweet compote of dried fruit. Gradually, the diet is expanded, patients are prescribed table No. 5 by Pevzner for a long time from 1.5 to 3 years. • Antispasmodics, painkillers. At the time of exacerbation, preferably parenteral (v / m) administration of these drugs: No-shpa, Drotaverin, Baralgin, etc. If biliary colic has developed, then Atropine (0.1%) is being administered. In severe cases, the introduction of Tramadol is indicated.
• Antibacterial treatment. Broad-spectrum drugs are prescribed: cephalosporins of I, II, III generations, Ampioks, Augmentin and others. Preferably against the background of probiotics (bifidum or lactobacilli).
• Detoxification therapy. Conducted if necessary.
• Choleretic drugs. Appointed only outside the period of exacerbation, taking into account the type of DGVP. It is important to remember that any choleretic drug reduces the concentration of antibiotics in the gallbladder.
• Enhance the body’s immune reactivity. Assigned vitamins: A, E, C, vitamins of group B.
• Physiotherapy and herbal therapy is performed during the period of subsiding of acute symptoms, taking into account the type of GWP.
• Physiotherapy. It is important because it improves the flow of bile, therefore, reduces the risk of exacerbations and stone formation. At the same time, excessive exercise is contraindicated.