Endometriosis refers to a tumor formation that has a benign character. In case of a disease of endometriosis of the uterus, its mucous membranes can also be deployed in other organs and tissues. Education can be detected both in the genital area – the fallopian tubes, endometriosis of the ovaries or the cervix, and in the extragenital area – with the occurrence of the disease in the abdominal organs and bladder. As a rule, endometriosis of the uterus occurs in 10-15% of women in the age range from 25 to 45 years.
Causes of Endometriosis
There is no exact justification for the occurrence of the disease to this day, and it is difficult to establish the exact causes of endometriosis. In many cases, experts note that heredity plays an important role. In most cases, this is a manifestation of systemic abnormalities that have arisen as a result of the disturbance of hormonal processes and the failure of the female immune system.
The causes of endometriosis and its development can also be provoked by such natural processes of the female body as childbirth. However, in this aspect it should be clarified that endometriosis of the cervix may occur due to complicated or late birth, which include women who gave birth after 30 years. In addition, abortions, delivery by caesarean section, erosion treatment by cervical diathermocoagulation contribute to the emergence of the disease, especially if this procedure is performed before menstruation and thus gives a high probability of endometrial cell growth to the wound surface with a tendency to develop cervical endometriosis and similar formations in the pelvic cavity.
Symptoms of endometriosis
Typical clinical symptoms of endometriosis appear as painful menstruation and pain in the pelvic area. Discharges of a spotting nature that occur before and after menstruation, heavy and scanty bleeding in the intermenstrual period — all this indicates the presence of a disease in a woman’s body. It is worth noting that futile attempts to get pregnant and infertility are characteristic symptoms of endometriosis.
Rarely, pain during urination, defecation, or during intercourse. If other organs are involved in the disease process (rectum, bladder), constipation, frequent urination, hematuria will be characteristic signs.
Ovarian endometriosis is characterized by pains of varying intensity. The most painful sensations occur in the presence of endometriotic cysts, which announce themselves with radiating pains in the area of the sacrum, lower back, rectum, and severe pain during menstruation. When part of the cyst contents is poured into the abdominal cavity and microperforation of its wall, acute pain can be observed, which are often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, tension of the abdominal muscles, constipation, diarrhea.
Vaginal endometriosis has a history of bleeding, regardless of menstruation, as well as during intercourse, which causes pain. Endometrial tissues, which are randomly located, and many adhesions provoke a dysfunction in the work of the affected organs. Also, the woman is accompanied by constant discomfort in the form of itching and tingling.
Despite the fact that the symptoms that have appeared may alert the woman and provoke her to see a specialist, there are cases when endometriosis may not have any signs, thereby not giving the woman any doubt about her health. It is precisely in order to diagnose the disease during a period of time that it is necessary to be regularly monitored by a gynecologist, and MRI for endometriosis will help to accurately determine the extent and spread of the disease. No less important to confirm the diagnosis are ultrasound, blood tests and smear.
Along with all this, the clinic of endometriosis is complicated by the fact that there are other diseases in the woman’s body that have similar symptoms with endometriosis. As a rule, in most cases these are pathologies of the pelvic organs. In order to exclude or confirm the diagnosis, a woman is scheduled for an examination, which includes the aforementioned ultrasound, blood tests, and hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy and laparoscopy.
Complications of Endometriosis
- The most severe form of endometriosis is infertility. Infertility, as a result of the development of the disease, occurs in more than 60% of women who become ill. According to statistics provided by medical institutions, every second case of infertility is caused by endometriosis.
- In addition, all sorts of neuroses, psycho-emotional states, neurological disorders occur due to compression of the nerve trunks.
- Frequent bleeding can cause anemia, which in turn leads to increased fatigue and constant fatigue, tachycardia, dizziness and headaches, tinnitus and pain in the heart, shortness of breath and poverty of the skin, as well as the general condition of a woman experiencing weakness and even social indifference.
- The most terrible complication of the disease is malignancy, which is the degeneration of endometrial tissue into a malignant tumor.
If the diagnosis is confirmed by all studies, including MRI for endometriosis, biopsy, blood tests and smears, treatment of endometriosis is prescribed and only by a doctor.
The main goals in the treatment of the disease are to reduce pain, stop the development of activity, and most importantly – to restore the reproductive function of the female body.
The choice of methods and methods of therapy depends on the symptoms – the degree of its severity, the age of the woman and her desire to become pregnant. In most cases, the treatment of endometriosis of the uterus is carried out with drugs, including hormonal and immune agents, and in some cases, can be treated with herbs. For example, treatment of endometriosis with a boron uterus will significantly reduce or stop bleeding. Drug therapy is aimed at slowing the growth of endometrioid tissue and suppressing the development of the disease.
With medication, hormonal drugs are often prescribed, which during the treatment stop menstruation, thereby contributing to the regression of the spread of endometriosis in different places of its occurrence. The choice of hormonal agents and the duration of treatment is determined by the doctor individually for each woman, based on the severity of the disease, age, the need for infertility treatment and the restoration of fertility.
Among the most well-known drugs that are widely used in gynecology as the main drugs for the treatment of endometriosis, nestosterone (and its analogues, norcolute, primolyutnor), medroxyprogesterone acetate (and its analogues – provera, depo-provera), didgrogesterone (better known as drug duphaston), linestrenol (and its international name – orgametril).
Also prescribed hormonal contraceptives single-phase action – estrogen drugs, which are taken continuously, or danazol and gestrinone, which are used in a cyclic mode. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as, for example, zoladex and decapeptildepo are highly effective and give good results in the treatment of endometriosis. Their use within two weeks reduces the activity of endometrial foci and the impossibility of their further development. As well as the treatment of endometriosis with boron uterus, the use of these hormonal drugs stops bleeding. But it should be borne in mind that with drug treatment with hormones, vaginal bleeding or spotting for 10-14 days may occur. As a rule, the picture of the disease radically changes after 4-8 weeks from the start of treatment.
In addition to medical treatment, endometriosis sometimes requires surgery. The use of surgical methods occurs when the body of the uterus is filled with nodal forms of endometriosis. Unquestioning surgical interventions require a condition in which endometriosis of the uterus is combined with uterine fibroma, as well as in endometrioid ovarian cysts. After the operation, the woman is prescribed hormone therapy, which is held for six months. Primary importance is attached to the use of laparoscopy when confirming the diagnosis of infertility, as well as in the presence of minor damage to the tissues of the organs. In severe forms of endometriosis, electrocoagulation of the disease foci is prescribed by doctors with the obligatory prescription of hormonal treatment.
In addition to medical and surgical treatment in the postoperative period, rehabilitation therapy is carried out, which is necessary to prevent the occurrence of adhesions, prevent possible complications with long-term use of hormonal drugs. Rehabilitation treatment involves the appointment of physiotherapy, such as electrophoresis with iodine and zinc. In addition, it is necessary to take drugs that have a beneficial effect on the function of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas and liver. As a rule, such drugs as pancreatin, festal are prescribed by doctors. To maintain the overall condition of the body requires taking multivitamins, as well as sedatives, painkillers, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs.
The most important thing a woman can do in order to confirm or refute her doubts about the disease is to seek medical help as early as possible. Regular visits to the gynecologist, as well as other specialists, help to identify and diagnose diseases that, due to early treatment, have not reached severe forms.
Especially the treatment of endometriosis of the uterus is important for women who want to restore fertility and feel the joy of motherhood. With timely access to a doctor, proper implementation of medical instructions, a full examination, the likelihood of pregnancy is predicted by doctors at around 40-70%. But even if a woman has crossed the age line and has no desire to give birth, she should not neglect the help of specialists. The treatment of endometriosis and, as a result, cure and recovery has a beneficial effect on the general physical and emotional state of a woman who can feel healthy and carefree again.